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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bayram, Islam Safak; Zamani, Vahraz; Hanna, Ryan; Kleissl, Jan;

    The mass adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) requires the deployment of public charging stations. Such facilities are expected to employ distributed generation and storage units to reduce the stress on the grid and boost sustainable transportation. While prior work has made considerable progress in deriving insights for understanding the adverse impacts of PEV chargings and how to alleviate them, a critical issue that affects the accuracy is the lack of real world PEV data. As the dynamics and pertinent design of such charging stations heavily depend on actual customer demand profile, in this paper we present and evaluate the data obtained from a $17$ node charging network equipped with Level $2$ chargers at a major North American University campus. The data is recorded for $166$ weeks starting from late $2011$. The result indicates that the majority of the customers use charging lots to extend their driving ranges. Also, the demand profile shows that there is a tremendous opportunity to employ solar generation to fuel the vehicles as there is a correlation between the peak customer demand and solar irradiation. Also, we provided a more detailed data analysis and show how to use this information in designing future sustainable charging facilities. Accepted by IEEE Energycon 2016

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1602.0294...
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2016
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    https://doi.org/10.1109/energy...
    Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      http://arxiv.org/pdf/1602.0294...
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      Article . 2016
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      https://doi.org/10.1109/energy...
      Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Li Li; Victor Okoth; Saif Eddin Jabari;

    Abstract Backpressure (BP) control was originally used for packet routing in communications networks. Since its first application to network traffic control, it has undergone different modifications to tailor it to traffic problems with promising results. Most of these BP variants are based on an assumption of perfect knowledge of traffic conditions throughout the network at all times, specifically the queue lengths (more accurately, the traffic volumes). However, it has been well established that accurate queue length information at signalized intersections is never available except in fully connected environments. Although connected vehicle technologies are developing quickly, a fully connected environment in the real world is still far. This paper tests the effectiveness of BP control when incomplete or imperfect knowledge about traffic conditions is available. BP control is combined with a speed/density field estimation module suitable for a partially connected environment. The proposed system is referred to as a BP with estimated queue lengths (BP‐EQ). The robustness of BP‐EQ is tested to varying levels of connected vehicle penetration, and BP‐EQ is compared with the original BP (i.e. assuming accurate knowledge of traffic conditions), a real‐world adaptive signal controller, and optimized fixed timing control using microscopic traffic simulation with field calibrated data. These results show that with a connected vehicle penetration rate as little as 10%, BP‐EQ can outperform the adaptive controller and the fixed timing controller in terms of average delay, throughput, and maximum stopped queue lengths under high demand scenarios.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    IET Intelligent Transport Systems
    Article
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    IET Intelligent Transport Systems
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2020
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      IET Intelligent Transport Systems
      Article
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      IET Intelligent Transport Systems
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Zaid Saeed Khan; Weili He; Mónica Menéndez;

    The stochastic nature of public transport systems leads to headway variability and bus bunching, causing both operator and passenger cost to increase significantly. Traditional strategies to counter bus bunching, including bus-holding, stop-skipping, and bus substitution/insertion, suffer from trade-offs and shortcomings. Autonomous modular vehicle (AMV) technology provides an additional level of flexibility in bus dispatching and operations, which can offer significant benefits in mitigating bus bunching compared to strategies available with conventional buses. This paper introduces a novel alternative to stop-skipping by leveraging the new capabilities offered by AMVs (in particular, en-route coupling and decoupling of modular units). We develop a simple bus-splitting strategy that directs a modular bus to decouple into individual units when it experiences a headway longer than a given threshold. We then use a macroscopic simulation to present a proof-of-concept evaluation of the proposed modular strategy compared to a benchmark traditional stop-skipping strategy and the base (no control) case. We find that the proposed strategy outperforms the benchmark in decreasing each of the three travel time components: waiting time, in-vehicle time, and walking time (which it eliminates completely). It therefore reduces the overhead of bus bunching and thus the travel cost by more than twice as much as the benchmark for busy bus lines. Simultaneously, it also reduces headway variability to a comparable degree. Furthermore, we analyze different control thresholds for applying the proposed strategy, and show that it is most effective when applied proactively, i.e. with the control action being triggered even by small headway deviations. Comment: 25 pages, 10 figures, 3 tables

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Transportation Research Part C Emerging Technologies
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2022
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Transportation Research Part C Emerging Technologies
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mahmoud Nabil; Ahmed Sherif; Mohamed E. Mahmoud; Ahmad Alsharif; +1 Authors

    Ridesharing allows multiple persons to share one vehicle for their trips instead of using multiple vehicles. Ridesharing can reduce the number of vehicles in the street, which consequently can reduce air pollution, traffic congestion, and transportation cost. However, ridesharing organization requires passengers to report sensitive location information about their trips to a trip organizing server (TOS) which creates a serious privacy issue. The existing ridesharing organization schemes are neither flexible nor scalable in the sense that they require a driver and a rider to have exactly the same trip to share a ride, and they are inefficient if applied to large geographic areas. In this paper, we propose two efficient privacy-preserving ridesharing organization schemes for Non-transferable Ridesharing Service (NRS) and Transferable Ridesharing Service (TRS). In NRS, a rider shares a ride from his/her trip’s start to the destination with only one driver, whereas, in TRS, a rider can transfer between multiple drivers while en route until he reaches his destination. In the proposed schemes, the ridesharing area is divided into a number of small geographic areas, called cells, and each cell has a unique identifier. Each driver/rider should encrypt his/her trip’s data with modified kNN encryption scheme, and send an encrypted ridesharing offer/request to the TOS. In NRS scheme, Bloom filters are used to represent the trip information compactly before encryption. Then, the TOS can measure the similarity of the encrypted trips to organize shared rides without revealing either the users’ identities or the locations. In TRS scheme, drivers report their encrypted routes, and then the TOS builds a directed graph that is passed to a modified version of Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm to search for an optimal path for rides that can achieve a set of preferences prescribed by the riders. Although TRS can be used to organize non-transferable trips, performance evaluation shows that NRS requires less communication overhead than TRS. Our formal privacy proof and analysis demonstrate that the proposed schemes can preserve users privacy and our experimental results using routes extracted from real maps show that the proposed schemes can be used efficiently for large cities.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IEEE Transactions on...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: IEEE Copyright
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    Article . 2018
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IEEE Transactions on...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Basat, Ran Ben; Chen, Xiaoqi; Einziger, Gil; Rottenstreich, Ori;

    Programmable network switches promise flexibility and high throughput, enabling applications such as load balancing and traffic engineering. Network measurement is a fundamental building block for such applications, including tasks such as the identification of heavy hitters (largest flows) or the detection of traffic changes. However, high-throughput packet processing architectures place certain limitations on the programming model, such as restricted branching, limited capability for memory access, and a limited number of processing stages. These limitations restrict the types of measurement algorithms that can run on programmable switches. In this paper, we focus on the RMT programmable high-throughput switch architecture, and carefully examine its constraints on designing measurement algorithms. We demonstrate our findings while solving the heavy hitter problem. We introduce PRECISION, an algorithm that uses \emph{Probabilistic Recirculation} to find top flows on a programmable switch. By recirculating a small fraction of packets, PRECISION simplifies the access to stateful memory to conform with RMT limitations and achieves higher accuracy than previous heavy hitter detection algorithms that avoid recirculation. We also analyze the effect of each architectural constraint on the measurement accuracy and provide insights for measurement algorithm designers. Comment: To appear in IEEE ICNP 2018

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1808.0341...
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2018
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    Conference object . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      http://arxiv.org/pdf/1808.0341...
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      Article . 2018
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      https://doi.org/10.1109/icnp.2...
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    Authors: Habler, Edan; Shabtai, Asaf;

    Abstract Although the ADS-B system is expected to play a major role in the safe navigation of airplanes and air traffic control (ATC) management, it is also well known for its lack of security mechanisms. Previous research has proposed various methods for improving the security of the ADS-B system and mitigating associated risks. However, these solutions typically require the use of additional participating nodes or sensors (e.g., to verify the location of the airplane by analyzing the physical signal) or modification of the current protocol architecture (e.g., adding encryption or authentication mechanisms). Due to the regulation process regarding avionic systems and the fact that the ADS-B system is already deployed in most airplanes, applying such modifications to the current protocol at this stage is impractical. In this paper we propose an alternative security solution for detecting anomalous ADS-B messages, which is aimed at the detection of spoofed or manipulated ADS-B messages sent by an attacker or compromised airplane. The proposed approach utilizes an LSTM encoder-decoder algorithm for modeling flight routes by analyzing sequences of legitimate ADS-B messages. Using these models, aircraft can autonomously evaluate ADS-B messages received and identify deviations from the legitimate flight path (i.e., anomalies). We examined our approach on thirteen different flight route datasets into which we injected different types of anomalies. In addition, we compared our proposed method with five commonly used anomaly detection algorithms: GMM-HMM, DBSTREAM, one class SVM, LOF and Isolation Forest. Our experiments show that by using our approach, we were able to detect all of the injected attacks with an average false alarm rate of 4.5%. Moreover, in all cases, the performance of the LSTM encoder-decoder algorithm outperformed the other algorithms.

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    Computers & Security
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Computers & Security
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    Authors: Wenqing Li; Chuhan Yang; Saif Eddin Jabari;

    This paper addresses the problem of short-term traffic prediction for signalized traffic operations management. Specifically, we focus on predicting sensor states in high-resolution (second-by-second). This contrasts with traditional traffic forecasting problems, which have focused on predicting aggregated traffic variables, typically over intervals that are no shorter than five minutes. Our contributions can be summarized as offering three insights: first, we show how the prediction problem can be modeled as a matrix completion problem. Second, we use a block-coordinate descent algorithm and demonstrate that the algorithm converges in sublinear time to a block coordinate-wise optimizer. This allows us to capitalize on the “bigness” of high-resolution data in a computationally feasible way. Third, we develop an ensemble learning (or adaptive boosting) approach to reduce the training error to within any arbitrary error threshold. The latter uses past days so that the boosting can be interpreted as capturing periodic patterns in the data. The performance of the proposed method is analyzed theoretically and tested empirically using both simulated data and a real-world high-resolution traffic data set from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Our experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art algorithms.

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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2020
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    Transportation Science
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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    Authors: Komissarov, Rony; Wool, Avishai;

    The safety and security of the passengers in vehicles in the face of cyber attacks is a key element in the automotive industry, especially with the emergence of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the vast improvement in Autonomous Vehicles (AVs). Such platforms use various sensors, including cameras, LiDAR and mmWave radar. These sensors themselves may present a potential security hazard if exploited by an attacker. In this paper we propose a system to attack an automotive FMCW mmWave radar, that uses fast chirp modulation. Using a single rogue radar, our attack system is capable of spoofing the distance and velocity measured by the victim vehicle simultaneously, presenting phantom measurements coherent with the laws of physics governing vehicle motion. The attacking radar controls the delay in order to spoof its distance, and uses phase compensation and control in order to spoof its velocity. After developing the attack theory, we demonstrate the spoofing attack by building a proof-of-concept hardware-based system, using a Software Defined Radio. We successfully demonstrate two real world scenarios in which the victim radar is spoofed to detect either a phantom emergency stop or a phantom acceleration, while measuring coherent range and velocity. We also discuss several countermeasures to the attack, in order to propose ways to mitigate the described attack.

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    http://arxiv.org/pdf/2104.1331...
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    Conference object . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      http://arxiv.org/pdf/2104.1331...
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      Conference object . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Li Li; Saif Eddin Jabari;

    Abstract Decentralized intersection control techniques have received recent attention in the literature as means to overcome scalability issues associated with network-wide intersection control. Chief among these techniques are backpressure (BP) control algorithms, which were originally developed of for large wireless networks. In addition to being light-weight computationally, they come with guarantees of performance at the network level, specifically in terms of network-wide stability. The dynamics in backpressure control are represented using networks of point queues and this also applies to all of the applications to traffic control. As such, BP in traffic fail to capture the spatial distribution of vehicles along the intersection links and, consequently, spill-back dynamics. This paper derives a position weighted backpressure (PWBP) control policy for network traffic applying continuum modeling principles of traffic dynamics and thus capture the spatial distribution of vehicles along network roads and spill-back dynamics. PWBP inherits the computational advantages of traditional BP. To prove stability of PWBP, (i) a Lyapunov functional that captures the spatial distribution of vehicles is developed; (ii) the capacity region of the network is formally defined in the context of macroscopic network traffic; and (iii) it is proved, when exogenous arrival rates are within the capacity region, that PWBP control is network stabilizing. We conduct comparisons against a real-world adaptive control implementation for an isolated intersection. Comparisons are also performed against other BP approaches in addition to optimized fixed timing control at the network level. These experiments demonstrate the superiority of PWBP over the other control policies in terms of capacity region, network-wide delay, congestion propagation speed, recoverability from heavy congestion (outside of the capacity region), and response to incidents.

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    Transportation Research Part B Methodological
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      Transportation Research Part B Methodological
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Anat Goldstein; Lior Fink; Gilad Ravid;

    An ontology is a formal representation of domain knowledge, which can be interpreted by machines. In recent years, ontologies have become a major tool for domain knowledge representation and a core component of many knowledge management systems, decision support systems and other intelligent systems, inter alia, in the context of agriculture. A review of the existing literature on agricultural ontologies, however, reveals that most of the studies, which propose agricultural ontologies, are lacking an explicit evaluation procedure. This is undesired because without well-structured evaluation processes, it is difficult to consider the value of ontologies to research and practice. Moreover, it is difficult to rely on such ontologies and share them on the Semantic Web or between semantic aware applications. With the growing number of ontology-based agricultural systems and the increasing popularity of the Semantic Web, it becomes essential that such development and evaluation methods are put forward to guide future efforts of ontology development. Our work contributes to the literature on agricultural ontologies, by presenting a method for evaluating agricultural ontologies, which seems to be missing from most existing studies on agricultural ontologies. The framework supports the matching of appropriate evaluation methods for a given ontology based on the ontology's purpose. Comment: 18 pages

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    Sustainability
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      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Sustainability
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      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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      Sustainability
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2019
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bayram, Islam Safak; Zamani, Vahraz; Hanna, Ryan; Kleissl, Jan;

    The mass adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) requires the deployment of public charging stations. Such facilities are expected to employ distributed generation and storage units to reduce the stress on the grid and boost sustainable transportation. While prior work has made considerable progress in deriving insights for understanding the adverse impacts of PEV chargings and how to alleviate them, a critical issue that affects the accuracy is the lack of real world PEV data. As the dynamics and pertinent design of such charging stations heavily depend on actual customer demand profile, in this paper we present and evaluate the data obtained from a $17$ node charging network equipped with Level $2$ chargers at a major North American University campus. The data is recorded for $166$ weeks starting from late $2011$. The result indicates that the majority of the customers use charging lots to extend their driving ranges. Also, the demand profile shows that there is a tremendous opportunity to employ solar generation to fuel the vehicles as there is a correlation between the peak customer demand and solar irradiation. Also, we provided a more detailed data analysis and show how to use this information in designing future sustainable charging facilities. Accepted by IEEE Energycon 2016

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1602.0294...
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2016
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
    Data sources: Datacite
    https://doi.org/10.1109/energy...
    Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      http://arxiv.org/pdf/1602.0294...
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2016
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      https://doi.org/10.1109/energy...
      Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Li Li; Victor Okoth; Saif Eddin Jabari;

    Abstract Backpressure (BP) control was originally used for packet routing in communications networks. Since its first application to network traffic control, it has undergone different modifications to tailor it to traffic problems with promising results. Most of these BP variants are based on an assumption of perfect knowledge of traffic conditions throughout the network at all times, specifically the queue lengths (more accurately, the traffic volumes). However, it has been well established that accurate queue length information at signalized intersections is never available except in fully connected environments. Although connected vehicle technologies are developing quickly, a fully connected environment in the real world is still far. This paper tests the effectiveness of BP control when incomplete or imperfect knowledge about traffic conditions is available. BP control is combined with a speed/density field estimation module suitable for a partially connected environment. The proposed system is referred to as a BP with estimated queue lengths (BP‐EQ). The robustness of BP‐EQ is tested to varying levels of connected vehicle penetration, and BP‐EQ is compared with the original BP (i.e. assuming accurate knowledge of traffic conditions), a real‐world adaptive signal controller, and optimized fixed timing control using microscopic traffic simulation with field calibrated data. These results show that with a connected vehicle penetration rate as little as 10%, BP‐EQ can outperform the adaptive controller and the fixed timing controller in terms of average delay, throughput, and maximum stopped queue lengths under high demand scenarios.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    IET Intelligent Transport Systems
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    IET Intelligent Transport Systems
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2020
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/