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  • Authors: Jamal, Jafar; Montemanni, Roberto; Huber, David; Derboni, Marco; +1 Authors

    SocialCar is a research project that aims at integrating carpooling with traditional transportation systems in urban areas, while benefiting from social media to enhance the user’s experience. The system is based on route planning and ride matching algorithms to provide the users with alternatives for their trips. In this work, we overview the multiple approaches in the literature to model transportation networks and carpooling services, and a route planning algorithm which integrates multiple transportation types together. Finally, the performance measures of the route planner are reported.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Ali Ebadi Torkayesh; Vladimir Simic;

    Abstract For efficient management of plastic waste in urban healthcare environment, the development of in-depth solutions considering all possible effective factors is required. Recycling plastic waste of healthcare centers has become an essential process for urban regions considering environmental, economic, and social issues. In this regard, recycling facility location selection is a multi-dimensional decision-making problem that can be addressed with the support of MCDM. Although traditional MCDM techniques have usually focused on benefit and cost attributes, in real-life practices, decision-makers in environmental sectors have shown a high tendency to consider specific constraints on attributes according to real-life standards. To address the recycling location selection problem with a practical solution, this study proposed a novel hybrid constrained decision-making model that integrates the hierarchical stratified best-worst method (H-SBWM) with the constrained combined compromise solution (CoCoSo) and the constrained weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS) methods, called H-SBWM-C-CoCoPAS. To examine the proposed approach, a case study is investigated for six location candidates in Istanbul under technical and sustainability aspects. The research findings show that the most important criterion for recycling facility location selection is carbon footprint with the weight coefficient of 0.1757. Also, the Pendik district is the best location for opening a recycling center in the Istanbul.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Sustainable Cities a...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Sustainable Cities and Society
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Sustainable Cities a...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Sustainable Cities and Society
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Judith Green; Rebecca Steinbach; Alasdair Jones; Phil Edwards; +6 Authors

    BackgroundIn September 2005 London introduced a policy granting young people aged < 17 years access to free bus and tram travel. A year later this policy was extended to people aged < 18 years in education, work or training. This intervention was part of a broader environmental strategy in London to reduce private car use, but its primary aim was to decrease ‘transport exclusion’, and ensure that access to goods, services, education and training opportunities were not denied to some young people because of transport poverty. However, there were also likely to be positive and negative health implications, which were difficult to assess in the absence of a robust evidence base on the impact of transport policies on health and well-being.ObjectivesTo evaluate the impact of free bus travel for young people in London on the public health. Specifically, to provide empirical evidence for the impact of this ‘natural experiment’ on health outcomes and behaviours (e.g. injuries, active travel) for young people; explore the effects on the determinants of health; identify the effects on older citizens of increased access to bus travel for young people and to identify whether or not the intervention represented value for money.DesignQuasi-experimental design, using secondary analysis of routine data, primary qualitative data and literature reviews.SettingLondon, UK.ParticipantsYoung people aged 12–17 years and older citizens aged ≥ 60 years.InterventionThe introduction of free bus travel for those aged < 17 years living in London in 2005, extended to those aged < 18 years in 2006.Main outcome measuresQuantitative: number of journeys to school or work; frequency and distance of active travel (i.e. walking and/or cycling), bus travel, car travel; incidence of road traffic injuries and assaults and socioeconomic gradients in travel patterns. Qualitative: how free bus travel affected young people and older citizens’ travel and well-being.MethodsQuantitative component: change-on-change analysis comparing pre–post change in the target age group (12–17 years) against that seen in ‘non-exposed’ groups [for travel mode, road traffic injury (RTI) and assaults]. Qualitative component: interviews analysed using both deductive and inductive methods. Economic evaluation: cost–benefit analysis (CBA).Data sourcesLondon Area Transport Survey (LATS) and London Travel Demand Survey (LTDS) (travel mode); STATS19 Road Accident data set (RTI); Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) (assaults); interviews with young people and older citizens; and cost data from providers and literature reviews.ResultsThe introduction of free bus travel for young people was associated with higher use of bus travel by adults and young people [31% increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 19% to 42%; and 26% increase, 95% CI 13% to 41%, respectively], especially for short journeys, and lower car distances relative to adults (relative change 0.73, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.94); no significant overall reduction in ‘active travel’ [reduction in number of walking trips but no evidence of change in distance walked (relative change 0.99, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.07)]; significant reduction in cycling relative to adults (but from a very low base); a reduction in road traffic injuries for car occupants (relative change 0.89, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.95) and cyclists (relative change 0.60, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.66), but not pedestrians; an overall modest increase in journeys to work or school (relative change 1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.14); equivocal evidence of impact on socioeconomic gradients in travel behaviour and no evidence of adverse impact on travel of older people aged > 60 years. An increase in assaults largely preceded the scheme. Qualitative data suggested that the scheme increased opportunities for independent travel, social inclusion, and a sense of belonging and that it ‘normalised’ bus travel. The monetised benefits of the scheme substantially outweighed the costs, providing what the Department for Transport (DfT) considers ‘high’ value for money.ConclusionThe free bus travel scheme for young people appears to have encouraged their greater use of bus transport for short trips without significant impact on their overall active travel. There was qualitative evidence for benefits on social determinants of health, such as normalisation of bus travel, greater social inclusion and opportunities for independent travel. In the context of a good bus service, universal free bus travel for young people appears to be a cost-effective contributor to social inclusion and, potentially, to increasing sustainable transport in the long term. Further research is needed on the effects of both active and other travel modes on the determinants of health; the factors that influence maintenance of travel mode change; travel as ‘social practice’; the impact of driving license changes on injury rates for young adults and the value of a statistical life for young people.FundingThe National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research programme.

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    Public Health Research
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    Public Health Research
    Article . 2014
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    LSE Research Online
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Public Health Research
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      Public Health Research
      Article . 2014
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      LSE Research Online
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Conor J. Walsh; Phil Jakeman; Richard Moles; Bernadette O'Regan;

    Cycling is widely viewed as a transport mode with marginal environmental impacts. However, such a view fails to take account of such factors as the increase in carbon dioxide exhaled as a result of increased physical activity or the emission embodied in the manufacture of the bicycle. This paper presents estimates of emission factors for various forms of commuter transport in Ireland that allow comparison against emissions from cycling. When indirect energy is taken into account, the results presented here indicate that a cyclist commuting an equivalent distance to work releases an almost equal amount of carbon dioxide as that attributed to a passenger of an electrically propelled train at full occupancy during peak service times. Travel by bicycle is much less carbon intensive when compared to passengers travelling at off-peak times. Transport by car and sports utility vehicle is the most carbon intensive of the commuter modes of transport studied, however, travelling in a fully occupied car has an emission factor approaching that of off-peak bus transport.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Transportation Resea...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Transportation Research Part D Transport and Environment
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Transportation Resea...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Transportation Research Part D Transport and Environment
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Filippo Arfini; Federico Antonioli; Elena Cozzi; Michele Donati; +3 Authors

    Sustainability is becoming a pivotal guide for driving the governance strategies of value chains. Sustainable policy should have as its objective the perpetuation of production models over time to maintain its environmental, economic and social dimensions. Therefore, measuring the sustainability of a production system is fundamental to deepening the understanding of ongoing trends, considering the pressure exerted by agricultural policies, market dynamics and innovations introduced in the production system. The purpose of this paper is to present a holistic framework for assessing the sustainability of food quality schemes (FQS), including the role of both stakeholders within the value chain, and the territorial dimension. This paper discusses the use of dimensional indicators and proposes synthetic indexes to provide an overall picture of the evolution of sustainability of a specific production system. Particularly, the evolution of sustainability in the Parmigiano Reggiano Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) production system is evaluated over the period 2000-2018. It is assumed that its evolution is due to the effect of 20 years of innovations which have impacted on product quality, value chain performance and rural development, modifying the sustainability of the whole production system.

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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
    Preprint . 2019
    License: CC BY
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    Sustainability
    Article . 2019
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    Sustainability
    Article . Preprint
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      Sustainability
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
      Preprint . 2019
      License: CC BY
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      Sustainability
      Article . 2019
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      Sustainability
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Muntahith Mehadil Orvin; Mahmudur Rahman Fatmi;

    Abstract This study investigates dockless bike sharing service (DBS) users’ behavior; particularly, why individuals choose DBS. A latent segmentation-based logit (LSL) model is developed using data from a DBS user survey conducted in Kelowna, Canada. The model is developed considering the following reasons for choosing DBS: cheapest option, fastest option, exercise purposes, recreational purposes, parking constraint, and unavailability of other modes or other reasons. The LSL model captures unobserved heterogeneity by assigning individuals into discrete latent segments. The model is estimated for two segments. Results suggest that segment 1 can be identified to include older, lower-income, frequent bike rider, females; whereas, segment 2 includes higher income, younger, non-frequent bike user, males. The parameter estimation results suggest that built environment attributes such as bike index, land use diversity index, transit accessibility, density of destinations, and length of bike infrastructure might influence the choice of DBS. The model confirms significant heterogeneity across the segments. Individuals residing in mixed land use areas with longer active transportation infrastructure are more likely to use DBS for recreational purposes in segment 1. In contrast, higher-income individuals in segment 2 show a negative relationship. The elasticity effects suggest that transit accessibility, length of bike lanes and cycle tracks, dwelling density, and vehicle ownership reveal substantial impact in segment 1. In contrast, bike index, land use diversity index, and personal vehicle ownership reveal significant impact in segment 2. This study offers important behavioral insights; specifically, the heterogeneity addressed in this research needs to be accommodated within the policy-making for efficient operation and expansion of DBS.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Travel Behaviour and...arrow_drop_down
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    Travel Behaviour and Society
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Travel Behaviour and...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Travel Behaviour and Society
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Stephen G. Perz; Flavia L. Leite; Lauren N. Griffin; Jeffrey Hoelle; +4 Authors

    Infrastructure has long been a priority in development policy, but there is debate over infrastructure impacts. Whereas economic studies show reductions in poverty, social research has documented growing income inequality. We suggest that a focus on livelihoods permits a bridge between the two literatures by highlighting decisions by households that may capture economic benefits but also yield social inequalities. We therefore take up two questions. First is whether new infrastructure allows households to diversify their livelihoods, where diversity begets resilience and thus affords livelihood sustainability. Second is whether households with more diverse livelihoods exhibit greater increases in livelihood diversity, which would widen livelihood inequalities. We take up the case of the Inter-Oceanic Highway, a trans-boundary infrastructure project in the southwestern Amazon. Findings from a rural household survey for the first question show a strong effect of accessibility on increasing livelihood diversity in areas receiving infrastructure upgrades, an indication that infrastructure fosters household resilience. However, results regarding the second question indicate that households with more diversified livelihoods also exhibit larger increments in diversity, which implies growing livelihood inequality. There remains a need to account for inequalities in livelihood diversity, since less diversified households benefit less from new infrastructure and remain more exposed to risks to their livelihoods.

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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Sustainability
    Article . 2015
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    Authors: Cottrill, C; Gault, P; Yeboah, G; Nelson, JD; +2 Authors

    Social media platforms are seeing increasing adoption by public transport agencies, as they provide a cost-effective, reliable, and timely mechanism for sharing information with passengers and other travellers. In this paper, we use a case study of the @GamesTravel2014 Twitter account to evaluate how this social media platform was used over the course of the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow, Scotland to provide and share transport-related information and respond to information requests. The case study provides an exemplar for the public co-ordination of information from multiple partners in a complex environment during a time of transport disruption. We evaluate both the structure and intent of the @GamesTravel2014 social media strategy via interviews with involved parties and an analysis of Tweets related to the account. Findings indicate the potential for future applications of social media by transport operators and authorities in producing a more effective network of communication with passengers.\ud \ud

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    Cranfield CERES
    Article . 2017
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      Cranfield CERES
      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Maria Cerreta; Chiara Mazzarella; Martina Spiezia; Maria Rosaria Tramontano;

    The unresolved territories are privileged places for the proliferation of degradation phenomena that affect the environment and human well-being. The impacts of their critical conditions go beyond the limits of the damaged urban fragments, involving the built environment, society, economy, culture, and conditioning quality of life. This paper proposes a methodological approach to landscape design supported by an evaluation framework to orient strategic design planning with specific attention to unresolved territories consistent with the circular economy perspective. The circular city principles are applied to landscape spatial planning, by operationalising Ecosystem Services, Landscape Services, and Ecosystem Disservices, as interpretative categories for multi-dimensional regenerative strategies. Starting from a theoretical framework, the objective of the analysis is to implement an approach to the regenerative design of landscapes of waste, defined wastescapes. The industrial area of East Naples is the case study where an incremental evaluative approach has been defined to design scenarios to provide services and values, aimed to drive the conversion in a regenerativescape. A multi-criteria analysis through preference ranking organisation method for enriched evaluation (PROMETHEE)-GAIA method has been implemented to compare the base case scenario with two incremental new scenarios and identify situated sustainable priorities.

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    Sustainability
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    https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
    Preprint . 2020
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      https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
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    Authors: Ignacio C. Fernández; David Manuel-Navarrete; Robinson Torres-Salinas;

    Resilience can have desirable and undesirable consequences. Thus, resilience should not be viewed as a normative desirable goal, but as a descriptor of complex systems dynamics. From this perspective, we apply resilience thinking concepts to assess the dynamics of inequality, spatial segregation, and sustainability in Chile’s capital city of Santiago. Chile’s economy boosted since democracy was restored in 1990, but continuity of neoliberal reforms and transformations of Pinochet’s dictatorship (1973–1990) seem to have locked Chilean cities in resilient, albeit unsustainable, patterns of uneven development. Socio-economic data from Santiago shows highly resilient patterns of urban inequality and segregation from 1992 to 2009 despite democratic efforts, political agendas and discourses packed with calls for reducing poverty and inequality. We present a conceptual model based on the notion of stability landscapes to explore potential trade-offs between resilience and sustainable development. We mapped Santiago’s spatio-temporal inequality trends and explored if these patterns support an inequality-resilience stability landscape. Analysis of temporal and spatial distribution of development assets across four human development dimensions (i.e., income, education, health, democracy) revealed potential socio-political and spatial feedbacks supporting the resilience of inequality and segregation in Santiago. We argue that urban sustainability may require breaking this resilience, a process where bottom-up stressors such as social movements could play a key role.

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  • Authors: Jamal, Jafar; Montemanni, Roberto; Huber, David; Derboni, Marco; +1 Authors

    SocialCar is a research project that aims at integrating carpooling with traditional transportation systems in urban areas, while benefiting from social media to enhance the user’s experience. The system is based on route planning and ride matching algorithms to provide the users with alternatives for their trips. In this work, we overview the multiple approaches in the literature to model transportation networks and carpooling services, and a route planning algorithm which integrates multiple transportation types together. Finally, the performance measures of the route planner are reported.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Ali Ebadi Torkayesh; Vladimir Simic;

    Abstract For efficient management of plastic waste in urban healthcare environment, the development of in-depth solutions considering all possible effective factors is required. Recycling plastic waste of healthcare centers has become an essential process for urban regions considering environmental, economic, and social issues. In this regard, recycling facility location selection is a multi-dimensional decision-making problem that can be addressed with the support of MCDM. Although traditional MCDM techniques have usually focused on benefit and cost attributes, in real-life practices, decision-makers in environmental sectors have shown a high tendency to consider specific constraints on attributes according to real-life standards. To address the recycling location selection problem with a practical solution, this study proposed a novel hybrid constrained decision-making model that integrates the hierarchical stratified best-worst method (H-SBWM) with the constrained combined compromise solution (CoCoSo) and the constrained weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS) methods, called H-SBWM-C-CoCoPAS. To examine the proposed approach, a case study is investigated for six location candidates in Istanbul under technical and sustainability aspects. The research findings show that the most important criterion for recycling facility location selection is carbon footprint with the weight coefficient of 0.1757. Also, the Pendik district is the best location for opening a recycling center in the Istanbul.

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    Sustainable Cities and Society
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Sustainable Cities and Society
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Judith Green; Rebecca Steinbach; Alasdair Jones; Phil Edwards; +6 Authors

    BackgroundIn September 2005 London introduced a policy granting young people aged < 17 years access to free bus and tram travel. A year later this policy was extended to people aged < 18 years in education, work or training. This intervention was part of a broader environmental strategy in London to reduce private car use, but its primary aim was to decrease ‘transport exclusion’, and ensure that access to goods, services, education and training opportunities were not denied to some young people because of transport poverty. However, there were also likely to be positive and negative health implications, which were difficult to assess in the absence of a robust evidence base on the impact of transport policies on health and well-being.ObjectivesTo evaluate the impact of free bus travel for young people in London on the public health. Specifically, to provide empirical evidence for the impact of this ‘natural experiment’ on health outcomes and behaviours (e.g. injuries, active travel) for young people; explore the effects on the determinants of health; identify the effects on older citizens of increased access to bus travel for young people and to identify whether or not the intervention represented value for money.DesignQuasi-experimental design, using secondary analysis of routine data, primary qualitative data and literature reviews.SettingLondon, UK.ParticipantsYoung people aged 12–17 years and older citizens aged ≥ 60 years.InterventionThe introduction of free bus travel for those aged < 17 years living in London in 2005, extended to those aged < 18 years in 2006.Main outcome measuresQuantitative: number of journeys to school or work; frequency and distance of active travel (i.e. walking and/or cycling), bus travel, car travel; incidence of road traffic injuries and assaults and socioeconomic gradients in travel patterns. Qualitative: how free bus travel affected young people and older citizens’ travel and well-being.MethodsQuantitative component: change-on-change analysis comparing pre–post change in the target age group (12–17 years) against that seen in ‘non-exposed’ groups [for travel mode, road traffic injury (RTI) and assaults]. Qualitative component: interviews analysed using both deductive and inductive methods. Economic evaluation: cost–benefit analysis (CBA).Data sourcesLondon Area Transport Survey (LATS) and London Travel Demand Survey (LTDS) (travel mode); STATS19 Road Accident data set (RTI); Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) (assaults); interviews with young people and older citizens; and cost data from providers and literature reviews.ResultsThe introduction of free bus travel for young people was associated with higher use of bus travel by adults and young people [31% increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 19% to 42%; and 26% increase, 95% CI 13% to 41%, respectively], especially for short journeys, and lower car distances relative to adults (relative change 0.73, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.94); no significant overall reduction in ‘active travel’ [reduction in number of walking trips but no evidence of change in distance walked (relative change 0.99, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.07)]; significant reduction in cycling relative to adults (but from a very low base); a reduction in road traffic injuries for car occupants (relative change 0.89, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.95) and cyclists (relative change 0.60, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.66), but not pedestrians; an overall modest increase in journeys to work or school (relative change 1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.14); equivocal evidence of impact on socioeconomic gradients in travel behaviour and no evidence of adverse impact on travel of older people aged > 60 years. An increase in assaults largely preceded the scheme. Qualitative data suggested that the scheme increased opportunities for independent travel, social inclusion, and a sense of belonging and that it ‘normalised’ bus travel. The monetised benefits of the scheme substantially outweighed the costs, providing what the Department for Transport (DfT) considers ‘high’ value for money.ConclusionThe free bus travel scheme for young people appears to have encouraged their greater use of bus transport for short trips without significant impact on their overall active travel. There was qualitative evidence for benefits on social determinants of health, such as normalisation of bus travel, greater social inclusion and opportunities for independent travel. In the context of a good bus service, universal free bus travel for young people appears to be a cost-effective contributor to social inclusion and, potentially, to increasing sustainable transport in the long term. Further research is needed on the effects of both active and other travel modes on the determinants of health; the factors that influence maintenance of travel mode change; travel as ‘social practice’; the impact of driving license changes on injury rates for young adults and the value of a statistical life for young people.FundingThe National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research programme.

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    Public Health Research
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    Public Health Research
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    LSE Research Online
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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