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  • Authors: Moissenet, Florent; Giroux, Matthieu; Cheze, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël;

    40ème congrès de la Société de Biomécanique, PARIS, FRANCE, 28-/10/2015 - 28/10/2015; The validation of musculoskeletal models remains a major challenge. However, thanks to some freely available data sets, it is now possible to evaluate estimated joint contact forces using the in vivo measurements of instrumented prostheses. Several authors have thus proceeded to a partial validation (i.e. musculo-tendon forces remain invalidated or only validated in terms of activity/non-activity compared to EMG) of their model using these data sets. Beyond these considerations, such data sets present a unique tool to compare the reliability of different methods and/or models. For example, the number of muscular lines of action has already been discussed in the literature and its potential impacts on the model outputs are high- lighted. However, the results were not compared to in vivo measurements, and it was thus not possible to conclude about the models validity. Moreover, while the knee joint has been extensively explored and many models have been subject to validation, few studies were interested in the hip joint and the validity of the models. The aim of this study was thus to implement two different musculoskeletal geometry models and to compare the estimated hip contact forces to in vivo measurements.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Laurent, Dimitri; Gay, Aurélien; Baudon, Catherine; Berndt, C.; +7 Authors

    3D seismic data located in the Gjallar Ridge (Voring Basin, offshore Norway) reveals a closely-spaced polygonal fault system affecting more than 800 m of homogeneous mud-dominated Quaternary and Tertiary sequences. As some faults reach the modern seafloor, they represent an active polygonal fault system at present day. Even if the processes remain unclear and are still under debate, it is generally agreed that the initiation of polygonal faults is the result of shallow burial dewatering of fine-grained unconsolidated sediments by volumetric compaction. 3D seismic data are commonly interpreted by propagating horizons automatically and by picking faults manually. However, in the case of polygonal fault intervals, this approach is time consuming due to the huge number of faults and because automatic propagation can be misleading. In this study, we applied a new technique of 3D seismic interpretation based on a sequential stratigraphy analysis, using the new PaleoScan© software (Eliis Company). It allowed us to build a 3D geological model computing more than 300 horizons within the faulted intervals. We then used the coherency attribute, depicting anomalies in the shape of seismic waveform like faults, in order to constrain a possible link between fault distribution and stratigraphic levels. Our approach allows fault throws to be calculated in milliseconds on any polygonal fault plane. The result shows that fault segments have been reactivated by dip-linkage. Distribution of faults depends on mechanical units, intervals characterized by different petrophysical properties, which are independent from lithological and diagenetic changes. According to these results, we propose a model showing the evolution of polygonal fault intervals in which faulting stages are separated by a quiescence phase during burial. A first tier of polygonal faults is initiated at a specific depth, according to the Cam–clay model. Then, following a period of quiescence during which mud-rich sediments continued to accumulate, new fault segments are initiated above the first mechanical unit and within this undeformed interval. New nucleated faults then connect downward to pre-existing underlying polygonal fault system, thus progressively increasing the thickness of the faulted interval. Highlights: ► We evidenced mechanical units in a polygonal fault system. ► Polygonal faults extent depends on sediment loading, not on stratigraphy. ► Throws distribution along fault plane exhibits reactivation by dip linkage. ► We evidenced compaction threshold of sediments for shear-compactional fault initiation. ► A HR 3D model of polygonal faults initiation is proposed.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Marine Geologyarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Marine Geology
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2012
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Marine Geologyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Marine Geology
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2012
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Sun, Meng; Pinel, Nicolas; Le Bastard, Cédric; Baltazart, Vincent; +2 Authors

    ABSTRACTIn civil engineering, ground‐penetrating radar is widely used for road pavement surveys. In contrast to the existing literature, this paper takes account of the influence of interface roughness (surface and interlayer roughness) within the scope of data processing of radar signals. The rigorous electromagnetic method PILE (Propagation Inside Layer Expansion) provides simulated data that show the influence of the interface roughness on the backscattered primary echoes of stratified media; the interface roughness provides a continuous frequency decay of the magnitude of the echoes. The observed frequency variations of the radar magnitude introduce some shape distortion on the radar waveform. The latter variations can be modelled by an exponential function, which provides satisfactory results for a narrow bandwidth (2 GHz). An adaptation of the root‐MUSIC algorithm is proposed. As a result, it is possible to jointly estimate the time delay and the interface roughness. The algorithm is tested on data simulated by the PILE method and numerical examples are provided to assess the performance of this algorithm. The associated results show that the proposed algorithm can estimate both the time delay and roughness parameters with a small relative error.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Near Surface Geophys...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Near Surface Geophysics
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Near Surface Geophys...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Near Surface Geophysics
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
      Data sources: Crossref
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Alvarez, M.; Tanhua, T.; Brix, H.; Lo Monaco, C.; +3 Authors

    Within the Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) density level, we study temporal changes in salinity, nutrients, oxygen and TTD (Transit Time Distribution) ages in the western (W) and eastern (E) subtropical gyre of the Indian Ocean (IO) from 1987 to 2002. Additionally, changes in Total Alkalinity (TA) and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) are evaluated between 1995 and 2002. The mechanisms behind the detected changes are discussed along with the results from a hindcast model run (Community Climate System Model). The increasing salinity and decreasing oxygen trends from 1960 to 1987 reversed from 1987 to 2002 along the gyre. In the W-IO a decreasing trend in TTD ages points to a faster delivery of SAMW, thus less biogenic matter remineralization, explaining the oxygen increase and noisier nutrients decrease. In the E-IO SAMW, no change in TTD ages was detected, therefore the trends in oxygen and inorganic nutrients relate to changes in the Antarctic Surface Water transported into the E-IO SAMW formation area. In the W-IO between 1995 and 2002, the DIC increase is equal or even less than the anthropogenic input as the reduction in remineralization contributes to mask the increasing trend. In the E-IO between 1995 and 2002, DIC decreases slightly despite the increase in the anthropogenic input. Differences in the preformed E-IO SAMW conditions would explain this behavior. Trends in the W and E IO SAMW are decoupled and related to different forcing mechanisms in the two main sites of SAMW formation in the IO, at 40°S–70°E and 45°S–90°E, respectively. 3

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    OceanRep
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley TDM
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      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley TDM
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Amaral, Miguel; Saussier, Stéphane; Yvrande-Billon, Anne;

    International audience; In many countries, governments are pushing for the introduction of competition in the organization of public services and more broadly in public procurement. The development of public-private partnerships throughout the world is a good illustration of this trend. In order to foster competition, competitive tendering through the use of auctions is now common. Nevertheless, competition for the field must be organized. Depending on the rules of the game chosen, introducing competition for the field may or may not be successful. In this paper we investigate two alternative models for organizing local public services, namely the French and the London models of urban public transport. Few competitors and collusive behaviours, with increasing costs, characterize the French model, while the London model, as far as we have seen, exhibits better results, by using the transparency of auction procedures and the discretionary power of the regulator as two complementary instruments to foster competition and prevent anti-competitive behaviours.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Utilities Policyarrow_drop_down
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    Utilities Policy
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Utilities Policyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Utilities Policy
      Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Helmuth Thomas; Elizabeth H. Shadwick; Frank Dehairs; Bruno Lansard; +11 Authors

    The seasonal and spatial variability of dissolved Barium (Ba) in the Amundsen Gulf, southeastern Beaufort Sea, was monitored over a full year from September 2007 to September 2008. Dissolved Ba displays a nutrient-type behavior: the maximum water column concentration is located below the surface layer. The highest Ba concentrations are typically observed at river mouths, the lowest concentrations are found in water masses of Atlantic origin. Barium concentrations decrease eastward through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Barite (BaSO4) saturation is reached at the maximum dissolved Ba concentrations in the subsurface layer, whereas the rest of the water column is undersaturated. A three end-member mixing model comprising freshwater from sea-ice melt and rivers, as well as upper halocline water, is used to establish their relative contributions to the Ba concentrations in the upper water column of the Amundsen Gulf. Based on water column and riverine Ba contributions, we assess the depletion of dissolved Ba by formation and sinking of biologically bound Ba (bio-Ba), from which we derive an estimate of the carbon export production. In the upper 50 m of the water column of the Amundsen Gulf, riverine Ba accounts for up to 15% of the available dissolved Ba inventory, of which up to 20% is depleted by bio-Ba formation and export. Since riverine inputs and Ba export occur concurrently, the seasonal variability of dissolved Ba in the upper water column is moderate. Assuming a fixed organic carbon to bio-Ba flux ratio, carbon export out of the surface layer is estimated at 1.8 ± 0.45 mol C m-2 yr-1. Finally, we propose a climatological carbon budget for the Amundsen Gulf based on recent literature data and our findings, the latter bridging the surface and subsurface water carbon cycles.

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    OceanRep
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley TDM
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2011
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      OceanRep
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: OceanRep
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2011
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Achim Randelhoff; Achim Randelhoff; Johnna Holding; Johnna Holding; +8 Authors

    Arctic Ocean primary productivity is limited by light and inorganic nutrients. With sea ice cover declining in recent decades, nitrate limitation has been speculated to become more prominent. Although much has been learned about nitrate supply from general patterns of ocean circulation and water column stability, a quantitative analysis requires dedicated turbulence measurements that have only started to accumulate in the last dozen years. Here we present new observations of the turbulent vertical nitrate flux in the Laptev Sea, Baffin Bay, and Young Sound (North-East Greenland), supplementing a compilation of 13 published estimates throughout the Arctic Ocean. Combining all flux estimates with a Pan-Arctic database of in situ measurements of nitrate concentration and density, we found the annual nitrate inventory to be largely determined by the strength of stratification and by bathymetry. Nitrate fluxes explained the observed regional patterns and magnitudes of both new primary production and particle export on annual scales. We argue that with few regional exceptions, vertical turbulent nitrate fluxes can be a reliable proxy of Arctic primary production accessible through autonomous and large-scale measurements. They may also provide a framework to assess nutrient limitation scenarios based on clear energetic and mass budget constraints resulting from turbulent mixing and freshwater flows.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OceanRep; Frontiers ...arrow_drop_down
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    OceanRep; Frontiers in Marine Science
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Frontiers in Marine Science
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    Article . 2020
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      OceanRep; Frontiers in Marine Science
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Marine Science
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Zaklouta, Fatin; Stanciulescu, Bogdan;

    International audience; Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) is an important component of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). The traffic signs enhance traffic safety by informing the driver of speed limits or possible dangers such as icy roads, imminent road works or pedestrian crossings. We present a three-stage real-time Traffic Sign Recognition system in this paper, consisting of a segmentation, a detection and a classification phase. We combine the color enhancement with an adaptive threshold to extract red regions in the image. The detection is performed using an efficient linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) with Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features. The tree classifiers, K-d tree and Random Forest, identify the content of the traffic signs found. A spatial weighting approach is proposed to improve the performance of the K-d tree. The Random Forest and Fisher's Criterion are used to reduce the feature space and accelerate the classification. We show that only a subset of about one third of the features is sufficient to attain a high classification accuracy on the German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark (GTSRB).

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Robotics and Autonom...arrow_drop_down
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    Robotics and Autonomous Systems
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Article . 2014
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Robotics and Autonom...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Robotics and Autonomous Systems
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Chevallier, E; Leclercq, L;

    Most of microsimulation tools used to model roundabouts encompass classical gap-acceptance algorithms to represent the insertion of approaching vehicles into the circulatory roadway. However, these algorithms fail to reproduce the average priority sharing process experimentally observed when the circulatory roadway is congested. This paper fills this shortage by proposing an integrated microscopic framework with: (i) a gap-acceptance algorithm giving relevant capacity estimates in uncongested regime; (ii) a probabilistic rate-based insertion decision module in congested regime. In this framework the car-following model can be implemented independently of the insertion decision making process. Moreover, its direct influence on the insertion decision model is released in congested regime thanks to a relaxation procedure. The obtained simulation results are convincing compared to on-field data collected at different sites for both peak and off-peak periods.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2009
    Journal of Transportation Engineering
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 2009
      Journal of Transportation Engineering
      Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Soive, Anthony; Baroghel Bouny, Véronique;

    Abstract The concepts of chloride penetration front and critical chloride content in reinforced concrete are not easily quantifiable and the disparity of results in the literature attests a great variability of the causes. The aim of this study is to propose part of the disparity interpretation on a diffusion test by examining the geometrical influence of gravel distribution on the variability of chloride concentration at a given depth and of depth at a given concentration, in an uncracked cover concrete. For this, concrete is considered as a two-phase material with mortar (assumed homogeneous) as one phase and gravels as another. 3 D composite specimens are modeled by using a mix of mortar and randomly distributed spheres of different sizes (gravels) to reproduce particle size distribution. An isothermal diffusion model based on Fick’s second law along with Langmuir and Freundlich types interaction is considered. Freundlich parameters are calculated from C 3 A content of the ciment. Langmuir parameter values are taken from the literature. The finite element method is used for the composition. Simulations are compared with experimental results obtained with an OPC concrete from the BHP2000 French National project. The study shows good agreement between the proposed pure diffusion finite element model and experimental results. It also shows that depth and concentration dispersions are not negligible, especially at 3 month of exposure. A part of concentration isovalue location can be 3 mm deeper than the mean value location, on the studied concrete.

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    Construction and Building Materials
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2012
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Construction and Building Materials
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Moissenet, Florent; Giroux, Matthieu; Cheze, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël;

    40ème congrès de la Société de Biomécanique, PARIS, FRANCE, 28-/10/2015 - 28/10/2015; The validation of musculoskeletal models remains a major challenge. However, thanks to some freely available data sets, it is now possible to evaluate estimated joint contact forces using the in vivo measurements of instrumented prostheses. Several authors have thus proceeded to a partial validation (i.e. musculo-tendon forces remain invalidated or only validated in terms of activity/non-activity compared to EMG) of their model using these data sets. Beyond these considerations, such data sets present a unique tool to compare the reliability of different methods and/or models. For example, the number of muscular lines of action has already been discussed in the literature and its potential impacts on the model outputs are high- lighted. However, the results were not compared to in vivo measurements, and it was thus not possible to conclude about the models validity. Moreover, while the knee joint has been extensively explored and many models have been subject to validation, few studies were interested in the hip joint and the validity of the models. The aim of this study was thus to implement two different musculoskeletal geometry models and to compare the estimated hip contact forces to in vivo measurements.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Laurent, Dimitri; Gay, Aurélien; Baudon, Catherine; Berndt, C.; +7 Authors

    3D seismic data located in the Gjallar Ridge (Voring Basin, offshore Norway) reveals a closely-spaced polygonal fault system affecting more than 800 m of homogeneous mud-dominated Quaternary and Tertiary sequences. As some faults reach the modern seafloor, they represent an active polygonal fault system at present day. Even if the processes remain unclear and are still under debate, it is generally agreed that the initiation of polygonal faults is the result of shallow burial dewatering of fine-grained unconsolidated sediments by volumetric compaction. 3D seismic data are commonly interpreted by propagating horizons automatically and by picking faults manually. However, in the case of polygonal fault intervals, this approach is time consuming due to the huge number of faults and because automatic propagation can be misleading. In this study, we applied a new technique of 3D seismic interpretation based on a sequential stratigraphy analysis, using the new PaleoScan© software (Eliis Company). It allowed us to build a 3D geological model computing more than 300 horizons within the faulted intervals. We then used the coherency attribute, depicting anomalies in the shape of seismic waveform like faults, in order to constrain a possible link between fault distribution and stratigraphic levels. Our approach allows fault throws to be calculated in milliseconds on any polygonal fault plane. The result shows that fault segments have been reactivated by dip-linkage. Distribution of faults depends on mechanical units, intervals characterized by different petrophysical properties, which are independent from lithological and diagenetic changes. According to these results, we propose a model showing the evolution of polygonal fault intervals in which faulting stages are separated by a quiescence phase during burial. A first tier of polygonal faults is initiated at a specific depth, according to the Cam–clay model. Then, following a period of quiescence during which mud-rich sediments continued to accumulate, new fault segments are initiated above the first mechanical unit and within this undeformed interval. New nucleated faults then connect downward to pre-existing underlying polygonal fault system, thus progressively increasing the thickness of the faulted interval. Highlights: ► We evidenced mechanical units in a polygonal fault system. ► Polygonal faults extent depends on sediment loading, not on stratigraphy. ► Throws distribution along fault plane exhibits reactivation by dip linkage. ► We evidenced compaction threshold of sediments for shear-compactional fault initiation. ► A HR 3D model of polygonal faults initiation is proposed.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Marine Geologyarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Marine Geology
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Article . 2012
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