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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Malzahn, Arne; Clemmesen, C.; Rosenthal, H.;

    Somatic growth and nucleic acid content were studied in North Sea houting Coregonus oxyrhinchus larvae fed exclusively on dry diets at 2 temperatures (8.4 and 17.5°C) during a 32 d rear- ing experiment. The higher temperature enhanced growth significantly. Mean dry weights at the end of the experiment were 3.6 mg (SD = 1.07, range 1.4 to 5.7 mg) and 31.5 mg (SD = 21.9, range 3.6 to 96.0 mg), and mean standard lengths were 17.7 ± mm (SD = 1.6, range 11.8 to 19.6 mm) and 25.5 mm (SD = 4.2, range 17.0 to 35 mm), respectively. Significant responses to temperature were also found in the nucleic acids. However, these differences were not as remarkable and gave indications that differences in protein growth between treatments was based on protein biosynthesis being driven by the activity of the ribosomes, rather than their number. The use of the degree-day approach to nor- malize the data clearly showed the temperature-dependence of somatic growth. Only small differ- ences in growth and nucleic acid content were observed in the comparable range of the first 280 degree-days in fed fish. In non-fed fish, the starving potential was very similar (approx. 350 degree- days). Shifts in growth pattern from predominantly hyperplasia to predominantly hypertrophy were detected, with ongoing growth at both temperatures.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OceanReparrow_drop_down
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    OceanRep
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Marine Ecology Progress Series
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ OceanReparrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Marine Ecology Progress Series
      Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Amirreza Poorfakhraei; Mehdi Narimani; Ali Emadi;

    Traction inverter has been the subject of many studies due to its essential role in the proper performance of the drive system. With the recent trend in increasing the input voltage in battery-powered electric vehicles, multilevel inverters have been proposed in the literature as a promising substitute for conventional two-level traction inverters. A critical aspect of utilizing multilevel structures is employing proper control and modulation techniques. The control system structure must be capable of handling a number of key issues, like capacitor voltage balancing and equal power loss sharing, which arise in multilevel topologies. This paper presents a review of the present-day traction drive systems in the industry, control and modulation techniques for multilevel structures in the inverters, as well as the principal challenges that need to be addressed in the control stage of the multilevel traction inverter. A comparison has been made between different methods based on the most important criteria and requirements of the traction drive system. Finally, future trends in this application are presented and some suggestions have been made for the next generation of traction drives.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IEEE Accessarrow_drop_down
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    IEEE Access
    Article . 2021
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    IEEE Access
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IEEE Accessarrow_drop_down
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      IEEE Access
      Article . 2021
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      IEEE Access
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ali Akbar Shaikh; Leopoldo Eduardo Cárdenas-Barrón; Amalesh Kumar Manna; Armando Céspedes-Mota; +1 Authors

    In present real life situations, the stock and expiration date directly impact on the demand of an item. In this context, this research work develops an inventory model for stock and expiration rate-dependent demand under a two-level trade credit policy. Specifically, the following three situations are studied: (i) trade credit policy without zero ending inventory; (ii) trade credit policy with zero ending inventory; (iii) trade credit policy with partial backlogged shortages. The proposed inventory model is formulated as a non-linear constrained optimization problem. Some theoretical results are derived, and an algorithm is stated in order to solve the proposed inventory model. The main objective of the inventory model is to determine the optimal cycle length, the optimal ending inventory level, and the optimal number of units displayed which maximize the total profit. Some numerical examples are solved. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is done with the aim to see the impacts of a variation of the input parameters on the decision variables and the total profit.

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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Sustainability
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Sustainabilityarrow_drop_down
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      Sustainability
      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Yuting Wang; Lei Wang; Zhemin Li;

    2015 based on the input-output analysis method from the perspective of material metabolism. In detail, material flows and consumption analysis are employed to reveal the direct and indirect IMP consumption and supply of various sectors. Using an innovative hierarchy analysis and network utility analysis, the internal structure of the IMP consumption system and consumption relationships between different sectors are identified. Due to the increasing intensive production activities between the manufacture and processing of the dairy products sector and others, its downstream sectors have grown rapidly and the consumption relationships with others are mostly mutualism. The surge in IMP has caused dramatic changes in consumption relationships, which has the greatest impact on the service sectors, followed by manufacturing sectors. The rapid increase in IMP consumption has put great pressure on the supply and consumption of intermediate products of many sectors. Raw milk powder is one of most important raw materials for dairy processing and manufacturing. In the past decade, the rapid growth of imported raw milk powder (IMP) consumption has brought about significant impacts on China&rsquo s social economy. For more in-depth analysis of such impacts, this study develops a comprehensive IMP consumption model for China covering 2007&ndash

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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2020
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      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Noor Ullah Khan; Munam Ali Shah; Carsten Maple; Ejaz Ahmed; +1 Authors

    Traffic flow prediction is the most critical part of any traffic management system in a smart city. It can help a driver to pick the most optimized way to their target destination. Air pollution data are often connected with traffic congestion and there exists plenty of research on the connection between air pollution and traffic congestion using different machine learning approaches. A scheme for efficiently predicting traffic flow using ensemble techniques such as bagging and air pollution has not yet been introduced. Therefore, there is a need for a more accurate traffic flow prediction system for the smart cities. The aim of this research is to forecast traffic flow using pollution data. The contribution is twofold: Firstly, a comparison has been made using different simple regression techniques to find out the best-performing model. Secondly, bagging and stacking ensemble techniques have been used to find out the most accurate model of the two comparisons. The results show that the K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) bagging ensemble provides far better results than all the other regression models used in this study. The experimental results show that the KNN bagging ensemble model reduces the error rate in predicting the traffic congestion by more than 30%.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Zhou; Liu; Zhou; Xia;

    In the context of ecological civil construction in China, afforestation is highly valued. Planting trees can improve air quality in China's large cities. However, there is a lack of scientific analysis quantifying the impact urban forest scale has on the air quality, and what scale is advisable. The problem still exists of subjective decision-making in afforestation. Similar studies have rarely analyzed the long-term effect research of urban forests on air improvement. Using as an example, the city of Wuhan, this paper identifies the regularity between particulate matter concentration and adsorption of sample leaves, and establishes a system dynamics model of "economy, energy and atmospheric environment.&rdquo By combining this regularity with the model, the long-term impact of forest scale on particulate matter and atmospheric environment was simulated. The results show that if the forest coverage rate reaches at least 30%, the annual average concentrations of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can both reach the Grade I limit of national Ambient Air Quality Standard by 2050. The current forest cover is 22.9% of the administrative area. Increasing the forest cover by 600 km2 would increase this percentage to 30% of the total area. In the long run (by the year 2050), however, we showed that this increase would only reduce the annual concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 by 1&ndash 2%. Therefore, about 90% of the concentration reduction would still rely on the traditional emission reduction measures. More other ecological functions of forests should be considered in afforestation plan.

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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Sustainability
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      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Sustainability
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Di Kang; Michael W. Levin;

    Abstract Shared autonomous vehicles (SAVs) have been widely studied in the recent literature. Agent-based simulations and theoretical models have extensively explored the effects on travel service, fleet size, and congestion using heuristic dispatching strategies to match SAVs with on-demand passengers. A major question that simulations have sought to address is the service rate or replacement rate: the number of passengers each SAV can serve. Thus far, the service rate has mostly been estimated through simulation. This paper investigates an analytical max-pressure dispatch policy, which aims to maximize passenger throughput under any stochastic demand pattern, which takes the form of a model predictive control algorithm. An analytical proof using Lyapunov drift techniques is presented to show that the dispatch policy achieves maximum stability. The service rate and minimum fleet sizes are derived analytically in this paper and can be achieved with the proposed dispatch policy. Simulation results show that the maximum stable demand is linearly related to the fleet size given. Also, it demonstrates how asymmetric demand necessitates rebalancing trips that affect service rates. Even though decreasing average waiting time is not the primary goal of this paper, stability ensures bounded waiting times, which is demonstrated in simulation.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Transportation Resea...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Transportation Research Part B Methodological
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Transportation Research Part B Methodological
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Yujie Wang; Guijie Qi;

    In open innovation platforms, users learn external knowledge through network interaction, and their position in the interactive network has an impact on the user’s sustainable knowledge contribution. Due to the gap in knowledge level, users’ absorption and utilization efficiency of external knowledge is not consistent. We studied the differences in user sustainable knowledge contribution behavior from the perspective of knowledge absorption. We crawled the data of a typical open innovation platform, used LDA to identify the level of user knowledge diversity and social network technology to analyze the user’s network location, and used the negative binomial regression model for empirical analysis. Our results show that knowledge diversity positively affects user knowledge contribution, and network breadth and network depth have positive and negative effects on user knowledge contribution behavior, respectively. In addition, the level of user knowledge diversity moderates the influence of network location on knowledge contribution. In summary, this research not only provides a comprehensive perspective on our current understanding of the contribution behavior of open innovation platforms, but also provides an in-depth understanding of how open innovation platforms can be properly designed to promote continuous contributions.

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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Sustainability
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    Authors: Aoyama, J.; Hissmann, Karen; Yoshinaga, T.; Sasai, S.; +2 Authors

    Five hormone-treated female Japanese silver eels Anguilla japonica were tagged with ultrasonic transmitters and released by submersible in the West Pacific at seamounts of the West Mariana Ridge, their supposed spawning grounds. Four eels were tracked for 60 to 423 min in the vicinity of the seamounts. They did not settle at the seamounts but swam at a mean speed of 0.37 m s 1 into open water above deep ground. Their mean swimming depth ranged from 81 to 172 m. Experiments suggest that pre-matured A. japonica migrate to their spawning grounds in temperate warm water and at shallow depths.

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    OceanRep
    Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
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    Marine Ecology Progress Series
    Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
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      OceanRep
      Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
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      Marine Ecology Progress Series
      Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Cascetta, E; Coppola, Pierluigi;

    Abstract Despite some substantial limitations in the simulation of low-frequency scheduled services, frequency-based (FB) assignment models are by far the most widely used in practice. They are less expensive to build and less demanding from the computational viewpoint with respect to schedule-based (SB) models, as they require neither explicit simulation of the timetable (on the supply side), nor segmentation of OD matrices by desired departure/arrival time (on the demand side). The objective of this paper is to assess to what extent the lack of modeling capabilities of FB models is acceptable, and, on the other hand, the cases in which such approximations are substantial and more detailed SB models are needed. This is a first attempt to shed light on the trade-off between (frequency-based) model inaccuracy and (scheduled-based) model development costs in the field of long-distance (e.g. High-speed Rail, HSR) service modeling. To this aim, we considered two modeling specifications estimated using mixed Revealed Preferences (RP) and Stated Preferences (SP) surveys and validated with respect to the same case study. Starting from an observed (baseline) scenario, we artificially altered the demand distributions (uniform vs. time-varying demand) and the supply configuration (i.e. train departure times), and analyzed the differences in modal split estimates and flows on individual trains, using the two different model specifications. It resulted that when the demand distribution is uniform within the period of analysis, such differences are significant only when departure times of trains are strongly unevenly spaced in time. In such cases, the difference in modal shares, using FB w.r.t. SB, is in the range of [0%, +5%] meaning that FB models tend to overestimate HSR modal shares. When the demand distribution is not uniform, the difference in modal shares, using FB w.r.t. SB, is in the range of [−10%, +10%] meaning that FB models can overestimate or underestimate HSR modal shares, depending on timetable settings with respect to travelers’ desired departure times. The differences in on-board train flow estimates are more substantial in both cases of uniform and not uniform demand distribution.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Transportation Research Part A Policy and Practice
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio della Ricer...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Transportation Research Part A Policy and Practice
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Malzahn, Arne; Clemmesen, C.; Rosenthal, H.;

    Somatic growth and nucleic acid content were studied in North Sea houting Coregonus oxyrhinchus larvae fed exclusively on dry diets at 2 temperatures (8.4 and 17.5°C) during a 32 d rear- ing experiment. The higher temperature enhanced growth significantly. Mean dry weights at the end of the experiment were 3.6 mg (SD = 1.07, range 1.4 to 5.7 mg) and 31.5 mg (SD = 21.9, range 3.6 to 96.0 mg), and mean standard lengths were 17.7 ± mm (SD = 1.6, range 11.8 to 19.6 mm) and 25.5 mm (SD = 4.2, range 17.0 to 35 mm), respectively. Significant responses to temperature were also found in the nucleic acids. However, these differences were not as remarkable and gave indications that differences in protein growth between treatments was based on protein biosynthesis being driven by the activity of the ribosomes, rather than their number. The use of the degree-day approach to nor- malize the data clearly showed the temperature-dependence of somatic growth. Only small differ- ences in growth and nucleic acid content were observed in the comparable range of the first 280 degree-days in fed fish. In non-fed fish, the starving potential was very similar (approx. 350 degree- days). Shifts in growth pattern from predominantly hyperplasia to predominantly hypertrophy were detected, with ongoing growth at both temperatures.

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    OceanRep
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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    Marine Ecology Progress Series
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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      Marine Ecology Progress Series
      Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Amirreza Poorfakhraei; Mehdi Narimani; Ali Emadi;

    Traction inverter has been the subject of many studies due to its essential role in the proper performance of the drive system. With the recent trend in increasing the input voltage in battery-powered electric vehicles, multilevel inverters have been proposed in the literature as a promising substitute for conventional two-level traction inverters. A critical aspect of utilizing multilevel structures is employing proper control and modulation techniques. The control system structure must be capable of handling a number of key issues, like capacitor voltage balancing and equal power loss sharing, which arise in multilevel topologies. This paper presents a review of the present-day traction drive systems in the industry, control and modulation techniques for multilevel structures in the inverters, as well as the principal challenges that need to be addressed in the control stage of the multilevel traction inverter. A comparison has been made between different methods based on the most important criteria and requirements of the traction drive system. Finally, future trends in this application are presented and some suggestions have been made for the next generation of traction drives.

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    IEEE Access
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    IEEE Access
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      IEEE Access
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      IEEE Access
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    Authors: Ali Akbar Shaikh; Leopoldo Eduardo Cárdenas-Barrón; Amalesh Kumar Manna; Armando Céspedes-Mota; +1 Authors

    In present real life situations, the stock and expiration date directly impact on the demand of an item. In this context, this research work develops an inventory model for stock and expiration rate-dependent demand under a two-level trade credit policy. Specifically, the following three situations are studied: (i) trade credit policy without zero ending inventory; (ii) trade credit policy with zero ending inventory; (iii) trade credit policy with partial backlogged shortages. The proposed inventory model is formulated as a non-linear constrained optimization problem. Some theoretical results are derived, and an algorithm is stated in order to solve the proposed inventory model. The main objective of the inventory model is to determine the optimal cycle length, the optimal ending inventory level, and the optimal number of units displayed which maximize the total profit. Some numerical examples are solved. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is done with the aim to see the impacts of a variation of the input parameters on the decision variables and the total profit.

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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Sustainability
    Article . 2021
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      Sustainability
      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Sustainability
      Article . 2021
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