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  • Authors: Moissenet, Florent; Giroux, Matthieu; Cheze, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël;

    40ème congrès de la Société de Biomécanique, PARIS, FRANCE, 28-/10/2015 - 28/10/2015; The validation of musculoskeletal models remains a major challenge. However, thanks to some freely available data sets, it is now possible to evaluate estimated joint contact forces using the in vivo measurements of instrumented prostheses. Several authors have thus proceeded to a partial validation (i.e. musculo-tendon forces remain invalidated or only validated in terms of activity/non-activity compared to EMG) of their model using these data sets. Beyond these considerations, such data sets present a unique tool to compare the reliability of different methods and/or models. For example, the number of muscular lines of action has already been discussed in the literature and its potential impacts on the model outputs are high- lighted. However, the results were not compared to in vivo measurements, and it was thus not possible to conclude about the models validity. Moreover, while the knee joint has been extensively explored and many models have been subject to validation, few studies were interested in the hip joint and the validity of the models. The aim of this study was thus to implement two different musculoskeletal geometry models and to compare the estimated hip contact forces to in vivo measurements.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hadhami Ben Slama; Raoudha Gaha; Mehdi Tlija; Sami Chatti; +1 Authors

    Sustainable manufacturing technologies are the new challenge faced by enterprises, industries, and researchers. The development of a sustainability-based assessment method considering the environmental and economic impacts is crucial to realize viable manufacturing. However, few studies have addressed environmental economics and social flows using a common perspective. Mechanical machining is one of the most-used manufacturing techniques. The overall ecological, economic, and social footprint requires accurate and effective estimation and optimization. Several studies have addressed this issue by examining the entire process of machining, but sustainability flows for machining parameters and toolpaths have remained relatively unexplored. The lack of systematic assistance tools bridging the gap between decision-maker preferences and the three sustainability pillars—economic, social, and environmental—has impeded the widespread adoption of sustainable machining practices. To this end, this paper proposes an integrated approach to the decision-making problem that combines the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE) for selecting a sustainable machining strategy. The sustainability criteria are driven by manufacturing process parameters commonly employed and regulated during the manufacturing phase. This includes toolpath strategies as a qualitative input factor and manufacturing parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and stepover as quantitative input factors, affirming the practical applicability of the method in industrial contexts. New fundamental methods are also presented for selecting the most efficient machining parameters and toolpaths according to the weights assigned to each ecological, social, and economic footprint by the decision-maker (the manufacturer or production manager). In this way, sustainable machining strategies in the manufacturing industry will be strengthened in integrity. In a case study of part-end milling, both manufacturing parameters and toolpath strategies are considered to establish sustainable feature-based machining decisions.

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    Sustainability
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Sustainability
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Dominik Kirchler; Roberto Wolfler Calvo;

    Abstract In a Dial-a-Ride system, a fleet of vehicles without fixed routes and schedules carries people from their pick-up point to their delivery point. Pre-specified time windows must be respected, and service levels for passengers as well as operation costs should be optimized. The resulting routing and scheduling problem is NP -hard and can be modeled by a mixed integer linear programming formulation. In this paper, we propose a Granular Tabu Search algorithm for the static Dial-a-Ride Problem with the objective of producing good solutions in a short amount of time (up to 3 min). We evaluate the algorithm on test instances from the literature. Our new algorithm performs well in comparison with a classical Tabu Search algorithm, a Genetic Algorithm, and a Variable Neighborhood Search.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chatzis, Konstantinos; Morel, Thomas; Preveraud, Thomas; Verdier, Norbert;

    Consacré à la question de la traduction en matière de mathématiques, qu’il aborde ici par l’intermédiaire d’un acteur particulier, l’« élève », à la fois destinataire et, parfois, producteur de traductions, le présent article se structure principalement autour de trois études de cas. La première concerne la production, dans les États-Unis des années 1820 et 1830, d’une série de manuels de mathématiques et de mécanique théorique, élaborés à partir de manuels français et destinés aux étudiants de l’Université Harvard et de l’Académie militaire de West Point. La seconde s’attache à la traduction, en 1828, d’un manuel anglais dans l’espace germanophone. La troisième se penche sur la presse mathématique française de la première moitié du xixe siècle, illustrée ici par le journal des candidats à l’École polytechnique et à l’École normale (Nouvelles annales de mathématiques) et le journal des « progrès en mathématiques » (Journal de mathématiques pures et appliquées). Les objectifs poursuivis consistent à faire émerger des points saillants, à identifier des pistes prometteuses pour la suite de l’enquête, et à tenter d’établir un premier bilan, provisoire et sujet à des modifications, sur la question de la traduction mathématique et de ses éventuelles spécificités par rapport aux traductions relevant d’autres domaines. This article, based on three case studies, deals with the “translation” issue in the field of mathematics, here addressed through the specific figure of the “student,” simultaneously recipient, but sometimes also author, of translations. The first case study concerns American adaptations of a series of French mathematics and mechanics textbooks geared towards students at Harvard and at West Point Military Academy in the 1820s and 1830s. The second considers the 1828 translation of an English textbook in a German-speaking environment. The third focuses on two 19th century French mathematics journals that regularly published translations: the first was intended for École polytechnique or École normale candidates (Nouvelles annales de mathématiques) while the second was concerned with “the progress in mathematics” (Journal de mathématiques pures et appliquées). The article seeks to pinpoint highlights, identify promising investigative pathways and, finally, attempt to offer an initial and temporary assessment, subject to modification, of the question of mathematics translation and its possible specificities in relation to translations in other fields.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Mémoires du livre / ...arrow_drop_down
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    Mémoires du livre / Studies in Book Culture
    Article
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    Mémoires du livre / Studies in Book Culture
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Mémoires du livre / Studies in Book Culture
      Article
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      Mémoires du livre / Studies in Book Culture
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Jonathan E. D. Richmond;

    Abstract The role of a metaphor of centrally controlled air conditioning in governing Singaporean transport planning is examined, and its consequences evaluated. A modern transportation system has been put in place to link a hierarchy of central places. Tight government control has made change possible. A reliance on technical expertise at the expense of public involvement has, however, failed to develop public transport to effectively serve a range of dispersed‐destination travel needs. Regulatory approaches, furthermore, have discouraged service innovation. Policies making car purchase expensive have restricted car ownership. Effective change would be facilitated by involving a highly educated public more in decision‐making.

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    Transport Reviews
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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      Transport Reviewsarrow_drop_down
      Transport Reviews
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: David B. Stephenson; Alemtsehai A. Turasie; Donald P. Cummins;

    Adapting to human-induced climate change is becoming an increasingly important aspect of sustainable development. To be able to do this effectively, it is important to know how much human influence has contributed to observed climate trends. Climate detection and attribution (D&A) studies achieve this by estimating scaling factors usually obtained by performing a least squares regression of the observed trending climate variable on the equivalent variable simulated by a climate model. This study proposed instead to estimate scaling factors by using the econometric approach of dynamically modelling the time series as a cointegrating Vector Auto-Regressive (VAR) time series process. It is shown that a 2nd-order cointegrating VAR(2) model is theoretically justified if the observed and simulated variables can be represented as a one-box AR(1) response to a common integrated forcing. The VAR(2) model can be expressed as a Vector Error-Correction Model (VECM) and then fitted to the data to obtain the cointegration relationship, the stationary linear combination of the two variables, from which the scaling factor is then easily obtained. Estimates of the scaling factor from the VAR(2) model are critically compared to those from Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Total Least Squares (TLS) for annual Global Mean Surface Temperature (GMST) data simulated by a simple stochastic model of the carbon–climate system and for historical simulations from 16 climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) experiment. Results from the toy model simulations show that the slope estimates from OLS are negatively biased, TLS estimates are less biased but have high variance, and the VAR(2) estimates are unbiased and have lower variance and provide the most accurate estimates with smallest mean squared error. Similar behaviour is noted in the CMIP5 data. Hypothesis tests on the VAR(2) fits found strong evidence of a cointegrating relationship with the observations for all the CMIP5 simulations.

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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Sustainability
      Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Laurent, Dimitri; Gay, Aurélien; Baudon, Catherine; Berndt, C.; +7 Authors

    3D seismic data located in the Gjallar Ridge (Voring Basin, offshore Norway) reveals a closely-spaced polygonal fault system affecting more than 800 m of homogeneous mud-dominated Quaternary and Tertiary sequences. As some faults reach the modern seafloor, they represent an active polygonal fault system at present day. Even if the processes remain unclear and are still under debate, it is generally agreed that the initiation of polygonal faults is the result of shallow burial dewatering of fine-grained unconsolidated sediments by volumetric compaction. 3D seismic data are commonly interpreted by propagating horizons automatically and by picking faults manually. However, in the case of polygonal fault intervals, this approach is time consuming due to the huge number of faults and because automatic propagation can be misleading. In this study, we applied a new technique of 3D seismic interpretation based on a sequential stratigraphy analysis, using the new PaleoScan© software (Eliis Company). It allowed us to build a 3D geological model computing more than 300 horizons within the faulted intervals. We then used the coherency attribute, depicting anomalies in the shape of seismic waveform like faults, in order to constrain a possible link between fault distribution and stratigraphic levels. Our approach allows fault throws to be calculated in milliseconds on any polygonal fault plane. The result shows that fault segments have been reactivated by dip-linkage. Distribution of faults depends on mechanical units, intervals characterized by different petrophysical properties, which are independent from lithological and diagenetic changes. According to these results, we propose a model showing the evolution of polygonal fault intervals in which faulting stages are separated by a quiescence phase during burial. A first tier of polygonal faults is initiated at a specific depth, according to the Cam–clay model. Then, following a period of quiescence during which mud-rich sediments continued to accumulate, new fault segments are initiated above the first mechanical unit and within this undeformed interval. New nucleated faults then connect downward to pre-existing underlying polygonal fault system, thus progressively increasing the thickness of the faulted interval. Highlights: ► We evidenced mechanical units in a polygonal fault system. ► Polygonal faults extent depends on sediment loading, not on stratigraphy. ► Throws distribution along fault plane exhibits reactivation by dip linkage. ► We evidenced compaction threshold of sediments for shear-compactional fault initiation. ► A HR 3D model of polygonal faults initiation is proposed.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Marine Geologyarrow_drop_down
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    Marine Geology
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2012
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Marine Geologyarrow_drop_down
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      Marine Geology
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2012
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    Authors: Touri, L.; Marchetti, H.; Sari-Minodier, I.; Molinari, Nicolas; +1 Authors

    International audience; IAir traffic is increasing, raising concern about local pollution and its adverse health effects on the people living in the vicinity of large airports. However, the highest risk is probably occupational exposure due to proximity. Jet exhaust is one of the main concerns at an airport and may have a health impact, particularly on the respiratory tract. Current studies are neither numerous enough nor strong enough to prove this kind of association. Yet, more and more people work in airports, and occupational exposure to jet exhaust is a fact. The aim of this review was to evaluate the existing knowledge regarding the impact of airport pollution on respiratory health. We conducted systematic literature searches to examine workplace exposures.

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    European Respiratory Review
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    European Respiratory Review
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2013
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    ProdInra
    Article . 2013
    License: CC BY SA
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      European Respiratory Review
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2013
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      ProdInra
      Article . 2013
      License: CC BY SA
      Data sources: ProdInra
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Claude Marin-Lamellet; Jean-Luc Minguy;

    The aim of the Investigation into the Employment of Handicapped Persons in the Maritime Industry (the HANDIAMI project funded by the European Commission DG VII Task 38 Waterborne Transport) is to produce a number of concrete recommendations concerning the safety (evacuation procedures) of passengers on board car ferries who are elderly or have disabilities, and the accessibility available to them. A discussion is presented on issues concerning the main differences between high-speed and traditional ferries and the safety management of passengers in an emergency situation. There is a concentration on how an evacuation of elderly or disabled passengers is carried out. The approach used was based on focus groups, interviews, and observations. That led to a cross analysis of ship equipment and passengers’ functional abilities to highlight situations in which the crew will have to help compensate. Results are presented in tables that identify the independent relationship between functional disabilities and the ship’s infrastructure. The study undertaken showed that the safe evacuation of elderly and disabled passengers can be achieved through coordination of design, deployments, and training. Means of evacuation should be considered at the concept design stage, deployments should include representative sample populations including elderly and disabled passengers, and dedicated staff should be trained to specifically meet the needs of these passengers and to provide for their safe evacuation.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Transportation Resea...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
    License: SAGE TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Transportation Resea...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Transportation Research Record Journal of the Transportation Research Board
      Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Sun, Meng; Pinel, Nicolas; Le Bastard, Cédric; Baltazart, Vincent; +2 Authors

    ABSTRACTIn civil engineering, ground‐penetrating radar is widely used for road pavement surveys. In contrast to the existing literature, this paper takes account of the influence of interface roughness (surface and interlayer roughness) within the scope of data processing of radar signals. The rigorous electromagnetic method PILE (Propagation Inside Layer Expansion) provides simulated data that show the influence of the interface roughness on the backscattered primary echoes of stratified media; the interface roughness provides a continuous frequency decay of the magnitude of the echoes. The observed frequency variations of the radar magnitude introduce some shape distortion on the radar waveform. The latter variations can be modelled by an exponential function, which provides satisfactory results for a narrow bandwidth (2 GHz). An adaptation of the root‐MUSIC algorithm is proposed. As a result, it is possible to jointly estimate the time delay and the interface roughness. The algorithm is tested on data simulated by the PILE method and numerical examples are provided to assess the performance of this algorithm. The associated results show that the proposed algorithm can estimate both the time delay and roughness parameters with a small relative error.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Near Surface Geophys...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Near Surface Geophysics
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Near Surface Geophys...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Near Surface Geophysics
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2015
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  • Authors: Moissenet, Florent; Giroux, Matthieu; Cheze, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël;

    40ème congrès de la Société de Biomécanique, PARIS, FRANCE, 28-/10/2015 - 28/10/2015; The validation of musculoskeletal models remains a major challenge. However, thanks to some freely available data sets, it is now possible to evaluate estimated joint contact forces using the in vivo measurements of instrumented prostheses. Several authors have thus proceeded to a partial validation (i.e. musculo-tendon forces remain invalidated or only validated in terms of activity/non-activity compared to EMG) of their model using these data sets. Beyond these considerations, such data sets present a unique tool to compare the reliability of different methods and/or models. For example, the number of muscular lines of action has already been discussed in the literature and its potential impacts on the model outputs are high- lighted. However, the results were not compared to in vivo measurements, and it was thus not possible to conclude about the models validity. Moreover, while the knee joint has been extensively explored and many models have been subject to validation, few studies were interested in the hip joint and the validity of the models. The aim of this study was thus to implement two different musculoskeletal geometry models and to compare the estimated hip contact forces to in vivo measurements.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hadhami Ben Slama; Raoudha Gaha; Mehdi Tlija; Sami Chatti; +1 Authors

    Sustainable manufacturing technologies are the new challenge faced by enterprises, industries, and researchers. The development of a sustainability-based assessment method considering the environmental and economic impacts is crucial to realize viable manufacturing. However, few studies have addressed environmental economics and social flows using a common perspective. Mechanical machining is one of the most-used manufacturing techniques. The overall ecological, economic, and social footprint requires accurate and effective estimation and optimization. Several studies have addressed this issue by examining the entire process of machining, but sustainability flows for machining parameters and toolpaths have remained relatively unexplored. The lack of systematic assistance tools bridging the gap between decision-maker preferences and the three sustainability pillars—economic, social, and environmental—has impeded the widespread adoption of sustainable machining practices. To this end, this paper proposes an integrated approach to the decision-making problem that combines the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE) for selecting a sustainable machining strategy. The sustainability criteria are driven by manufacturing process parameters commonly employed and regulated during the manufacturing phase. This includes toolpath strategies as a qualitative input factor and manufacturing parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and stepover as quantitative input factors, affirming the practical applicability of the method in industrial contexts. New fundamental methods are also presented for selecting the most efficient machining parameters and toolpaths according to the weights assigned to each ecological, social, and economic footprint by the decision-maker (the manufacturer or production manager). In this way, sustainable machining strategies in the manufacturing industry will be strengthened in integrity. In a case study of part-end milling, both manufacturing parameters and toolpath strategies are considered to establish sustainable feature-based machining decisions.

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    Sustainability
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Sustainability
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Dominik Kirchler; Roberto Wolfler Calvo;

    Abstract In a Dial-a-Ride system, a fleet of vehicles without fixed routes and schedules carries people from their pick-up point to their delivery point. Pre-specified time windows must be respected, and service levels for passengers as well as operation costs should be optimized. The resulting routing and scheduling problem is NP -hard and can be modeled by a mixed integer linear programming formulation. In this paper, we propose a Granular Tabu Search algorithm for the static Dial-a-Ride Problem with the objective of producing good solutions in a short amount of time (up to 3 min). We evaluate the algorithm on test instances from the literature. Our new algorithm performs well in comparison with a classical Tabu Search algorithm, a Genetic Algorithm, and a Variable Neighborhood Search.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chatzis, Konstantinos; Morel, Thomas; Preveraud, Thomas; Verdier, Norbert;

    Consacré à la question de la traduction en matière de mathématiques, qu’il aborde ici par l’intermédiaire d’un acteur particulier, l’« élève », à la fois destinataire et, parfois, producteur de traductions, le présent article se structure principalement autour de trois études de cas. La première concerne la production, dans les États-Unis des années 1820 et 1830, d’une série de manuels de mathématiques et de mécanique théorique, élaborés à partir de manuels français et destinés aux étudiants de l’Université Harvard et de l’Académie militaire de West Point. La seconde s’attache à la traduction, en 1828, d’un manuel anglais dans l’espace germanophone. La troisième se penche sur la presse mathématique française de la première moitié du xixe siècle, illustrée ici par le journal des candidats à l’École polytechnique et à l’École normale (Nouvelles annales de mathématiques) et le journal des « progrès en mathématiques » (Journal de mathématiques pures et appliquées). Les objectifs poursuivis consistent à faire émerger des points saillants, à identifier des pistes prometteuses pour la suite de l’enquête, et à tenter d’établir un premier bilan, provisoire et sujet à des modifications, sur la question de la traduction mathématique et de ses éventuelles spécificités par rapport aux traductions relevant d’autres domaines. This article, based on three case studies, deals with the “translation” issue in the field of mathematics, here addressed through the specific figure of the “student,” simultaneously recipient, but sometimes also author, of translations. The first case study concerns American adaptations of a series of French mathematics and mechanics textbooks geared towards students at Harvard and at West Point Military Academy in the 1820s and 1830s. The second considers the 1828 translation of an English textbook in a German-speaking environment. The third focuses on two 19th century French mathematics journals that regularly published translations: the first was intended for École polytechnique or École normale candidates (Nouvelles annales de mathématiques) while the second was concerned with “the progress in mathematics” (Journal de mathématiques pures et appliquées). The article seeks to pinpoint highlights, identify promising investigative pathways and, finally, attempt to offer an initial and temporary assessment, subject to modification, of the question of mathematics translation and its possible specificities in relation to translations in other fields.

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    Mémoires du livre / Studies in Book Culture
    Article
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    Mémoires du livre / Studies in Book Culture
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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