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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: World Bank;

    This set of reports on manufacturing plans implementation in India includes the following: (1) A new agenda. Improving the competitiveness of the textiles and apparel value chain in India report is structured as follows: section one sets out the context, describing trends in global markets and in the textiles and apparel supply chain in India; section two analyzes in detail the choke points that are hindering the growth of the latter; section three sets out a reform agenda to address them; and section four concludes. (2) Fast tracking Indias electronics manufacturing industry. Business environment and industrial policy examines the prospects for India to meet its potential. Drawing on extensive survey questionnaires and interviews with key industry players (both domestic and foreign) and relevant government agencies, this study identifies major challenges India-based companies face in engaging in electronics manufacturing. The analysis culminates in detailed policy suggestions for regulatory reform and support policies needed to unblock barriers to investment in this industry and to fast-track it’s upgrading through innovation. (3) Supply chain delays and uncertainty in India. The hidden constraint on manufacturing growth report provides the context of the freight and logistics industry in India; describes the headline impacts of its performance on manufacturing firms; explores variations in this impact and causes thereof; and concludes with a more detailed look at the reform agenda this motivates.

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    Research . 2014
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Open Knowledge Repos...arrow_drop_down
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      Research . 2014
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Amos, Paul; Thompson, Lou;

    This Transport Note has been prepared as an adjunct to the 2006-07 updating of the World Bank's Railways Databases. It uses the databases for inferences on aggregate trends as well as other Bank documents and sources of policy information. It provides a high level view of traffic and policy developments. Particular emphasis is given to the Bank's six regions of operations at a time when the Bank's Transport Strategy is being updated with the intention of increasing the attention given to the role of railways in development. For completeness, important policy developments in the higher income countries are also summarized. The Note has been prepared by Paul Amos, Transport Adviser to the World Bank and Lou Thompson, Railway Consultant, and formerly Railways Adviser to the World Bank. While the content has drawn upon the broad experience and expertise of the Bank in the railway sector, any views expressed herein are strictly those of the authors.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    This report describes and explains how, in the period 1990-2008, China's railway sector has contributed and responded to the incredibly challenging transport demands generated by China's economic development, and highlights the plans and possibilities that lie ahead. In 1949, China had only 22,000 km of poorly maintained and war-damaged railway line, less than 1,000 km of which was double-tracked with none being electrified. Since then, the government has transformed the railway sector into a vital element of China's national transport system and a key contributor to China's extraordinary record of economic growth. Today, China Rail is the second biggest carrier of rail freight and the biggest carrier of passenger transport in the world. It has the largest combined rail traffic task of any national railway system in the world, carrying about a quarter of the world's railway traffic on about seven percent of the global route-km of public railway. This paper describes how the Ministry of Railways, and its constituent regional railway administrations and other entities, have created a modern rail system by adopting proven international practices and technologies, giving them distinct Chinese characteristics, and adapting them to Chinese circumstances.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    Within the European Union (EU) rail transport is currently the least integrated transport mode. This leads to delays, extra costs, and insufficient use of rail freight, especially for time-sensitive cargo. This also represents a missed opportunity in terms of moving towards a greener transport modal split within the EU. Rail freight, for which international activity represents 50 percent of total activities, will not be able to develop fully if border crossing rail operations do not deliver a better service for shippers and freight operators who require seamless trans-national transport as is possible by road, air and sea. Observing that the modal split of rail in the EU is stagnating at around 16 percent after years of decline, the European Commission proposed a regulation on a European rail network for competitive freight to be based on a number of rail freight corridors which entered into force on November 9, 2010. Regulation No 913/2010 makes it mandatory to create a European rail network for competitive freight based on international freight corridors, recognizing that the need to strengthen the competitiveness of rail freight requires a corridor approach, involving corridors that cross national borders. TheEU adoption in 2010 of a corridor approach focusing on international rail freight has important implications for EU member states, accession and candidate countries, in terms of approaching rail freight investments and performance from an international corridor perspective with enhanced cross-border coordination, with the ultimate aim of increasing the attractiveness of rail to potential freight customers. The objective of this report is to address this recommendation by assessing whether it makes sense to introduce a pilot EDI in a rail border crossing point in South East Europe. It aims to make a preliminary assessment of the various technical options in terms of hardware, software, and communication requirements of such architecture, taking into account that any technical solution proposed needs to be adapted to the countries in question, given existing infrastructure and European regulations. The ultimate aim is to improve rail border crossing performance in South East Europe by the use of EDI to improve integration.

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    Report . 2015
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      Report . 2015
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    Authors: Williams, Robert; Greig, David; Wallis, Ian;

    This paper has been prepared for the World Bank as one of a series of research papers focusing on rail privatization experience throughout the world. The scope of this paper covers rail privatization experience in Australia and New Zealand, much of which occurred over the ten year period from 1993 to 2003. Overall the rail freight privatization experience in Australia and New Zealand, taken in concert with other market and structural reforms, has been positive, although not uniformly so: In Australia, the largely privatized rail freight industry is markedly stronger today than at any time over the last few decades and is competing aggressively for a greater role in the national transport and logistics market; and In New Zealand, the initial success of privatization with increased rail traffic and increased profits has not been sustained: the government has been obliged to take back the network and to commit significant public funds to address deficiencies in the network assets.

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    Authors: Blancas, Luis C.; Ollivier, Gerald; Bullock, Richard;

    Rail intermodal logistics, the movement of containerized cargo from origin to destination where a portion of the journey takes place on rail, have gained significance in North America over the past 10 to 15 years based on cost and operational efficiency. In China, however, the story has thus far been different. Considering the length-of-haul and commodity characteristics of China s manufacturing sector, the country has a persistently low incidence of rail intermodal participation in domestic and international supply chains. We find that the binding constraints behind the low incidence of rail intermodal services in China are most likely to be found on the supply side, not the demand side of the equation. Specifically, the regulatory and institutional environment, which regulate freight tariffs and provides little or no flexibility for China Railway Corporation (CRC) to tailor services to customer needs, is at the root of this challenge. This note outlines the success of railways in North America in (a) tailoring rail intermodal service offerings based on customer needs and willingness to pay; and (b) collaborating with other logistics service providers so as to concentrate on their core (rail transportation) competency, while leaving other segments of the end-to-end intermodal supply chain to those most efficient in those segments. The current policy and economic environment facing CRC seems favorable to pursuing reforms towards adopting similar practices.

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    Research . 2015
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    Authors: Blancas, Luis C.; Ollivier, Gerald; Bullock, Richard;

    China s shift toward accelerated economic growth in central and western provinces and increasing levels of personal income and consumption are all consistent with the need for rail-enabled Integrated Logistics Centers (ILCs). Yet, while hundreds of logistics clusters have been developed in China over the past few years, modern, international standard rail- and multimodal-transport enabled ILCs are less common. Close, long-term collaboration between public sector authorities and private sector specialized firms, such as real estate developers, have proven effective in the development of North America s focused network of ILCs critical to facilitating transcontinental and other freight itineraries. This model can succeed in China as well. The ready availability of multimodal transport connectivity is the most critical component of any cluster of logistics activities. This note will argue that China could substantially benefit from developing a focused network of well-planned, economically justified, financially viable, and carefully implemented ILCs supported by rail intermodal operations.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    The objective of this policy note is: (i) assessing the current situation of the transport and logistics sector in Djibouti, in particular regarding employment; (ii) examining the potential of the sector for creating jobs and generating new activities; and (iii) analyzing the constraints and making recommendations to alleviate. The note is divided into three chapters: (1) a diagnosis of transport and logistics; (2) opportunities and strategic priorities for the future; and (3) a suggested action plan. This policy note deals with transport and logistics and provides key input to the Djibouti New Growth Model study. The note relies on the findings of the World Bank mission that visited Djibouti in January 2012 to collect data and interview various representatives of the public and private sectors, as well as on a literature review. The note concludes that transport and logistics have a relatively limited potential for reducing unemployment since port activities are capital-intensive; the trucking industry serving the corridor to Ethiopia is totally dominated by Ethiopians; and the ongoing improvement of the supply chain s efficiency tends to cut jobs for a given volume of trade.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    The changed role of rail in Africa over the last thirty years has seen it move from a situation where many of the systems were carrying a high share of their country's traffic to one in which their market share has declined, their assets have steadily deteriorated, their quality of service has reduced, and they are in many instances only a minor contributor to solving the transport problems of the continent. The first railways south of the Sahara were built in South Africa in the 1860's and 1870's, with lines heading inland from the ports at Cape Town and Durban. The networks in what were then Cape Province, Natal and Transvaal continued to develop but it was not until the turn of the twentieth century that large-scale railway development began in other parts of the continent. In almost every case, the pattern was the same, with isolated lines heading inland from a port to reach a trading centre or a mine, and a few branch lines then being built over a period of time. As almost all the lines were constructed under colonial administrations, many of the lines were state-owned but several were also constructed as concessions or, in the case of some mineral developments, by the mining company as an integral part of its mining operation. Nevertheless, the rhetoric accompanying some of the transactions suggests that many politicians believe, or want to believe, that the concession award will be the prelude to very substantial investments by the concessionaires, particularly in infrastructure. To date, this has barely materialized, with most infrastructure improvements being done with international financial institution (IFI) or donor funds. The main issue for most sub-Saharan railways is whether concessioning is just a temporary solution or whether some alternative approach is needed to ensure a long-term future for railway systems providing acceptable levels of service.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    The Government of Pakistan's (GoP's) 2011 framework for economic growth seeks to place Pakistan on a sustained high economic growth path of 7 percent per year through measures to reduce the cost of doing business, improve the investment climate, and strengthen institutions. Trade and transport reforms are central to achieve the Framework's goal. The transport sector constitutes 10 percent of Pakistan's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and provides 6 percent of the employment in the country. The sector plays an important role in linking other sectors in the economy, contributes to both domestic and international trade, and helps facilitate the spatial transformation occurring in Pakistan. However, present patterns in transport and trade logistics generate inefficiencies that are costing Pakistan's economy roughly 4-6 percent of GDP per year, which is a major constraint to the aspirations set out in the Framework. This analytical work on Strategic Environmental, Poverty, and Social Assessment (SEPSA) of trade and transport sector reforms examines poverty, social and environmental aspects associated with reforms that would increase the freight transport sector's productivity to meet the framework goals. it focused on the following areas: (i) SEPSA's methodology and aims; (ii) description of key challenges in Pakistan's freight transport sectors, including the road, trucking, railway, port, and aviation sectors, as well as trade and transport interventions and reforms proposed by the GoP and other stakeholders; (iii) identification of stakeholders, particularly the most vulnerable groups that could be affected by reforms aimed at increasing freight transport productivity, and analyzing the priority poverty issues associated with freight transport in Pakistan; (iv) identification jointly with stakeholders of priority social and environmental issues associated with freight transport, and analyzing such issues; (iv) examination of potential freight transportation social and environmental policy options for enhancing positive effects or reducing adverse effects associated with increases in freight transport productivity; and (v) identification of options to strengthen governance and the institutional capacity of agencies to manage the environmental, social and poverty priorities associated with Pakistan's freight transportation.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: World Bank;

    This set of reports on manufacturing plans implementation in India includes the following: (1) A new agenda. Improving the competitiveness of the textiles and apparel value chain in India report is structured as follows: section one sets out the context, describing trends in global markets and in the textiles and apparel supply chain in India; section two analyzes in detail the choke points that are hindering the growth of the latter; section three sets out a reform agenda to address them; and section four concludes. (2) Fast tracking Indias electronics manufacturing industry. Business environment and industrial policy examines the prospects for India to meet its potential. Drawing on extensive survey questionnaires and interviews with key industry players (both domestic and foreign) and relevant government agencies, this study identifies major challenges India-based companies face in engaging in electronics manufacturing. The analysis culminates in detailed policy suggestions for regulatory reform and support policies needed to unblock barriers to investment in this industry and to fast-track it’s upgrading through innovation. (3) Supply chain delays and uncertainty in India. The hidden constraint on manufacturing growth report provides the context of the freight and logistics industry in India; describes the headline impacts of its performance on manufacturing firms; explores variations in this impact and causes thereof; and concludes with a more detailed look at the reform agenda this motivates.

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    Research . 2014
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      Research . 2014
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Amos, Paul; Thompson, Lou;

    This Transport Note has been prepared as an adjunct to the 2006-07 updating of the World Bank's Railways Databases. It uses the databases for inferences on aggregate trends as well as other Bank documents and sources of policy information. It provides a high level view of traffic and policy developments. Particular emphasis is given to the Bank's six regions of operations at a time when the Bank's Transport Strategy is being updated with the intention of increasing the attention given to the role of railways in development. For completeness, important policy developments in the higher income countries are also summarized. The Note has been prepared by Paul Amos, Transport Adviser to the World Bank and Lou Thompson, Railway Consultant, and formerly Railways Adviser to the World Bank. While the content has drawn upon the broad experience and expertise of the Bank in the railway sector, any views expressed herein are strictly those of the authors.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    This report describes and explains how, in the period 1990-2008, China's railway sector has contributed and responded to the incredibly challenging transport demands generated by China's economic development, and highlights the plans and possibilities that lie ahead. In 1949, China had only 22,000 km of poorly maintained and war-damaged railway line, less than 1,000 km of which was double-tracked with none being electrified. Since then, the government has transformed the railway sector into a vital element of China's national transport system and a key contributor to China's extraordinary record of economic growth. Today, China Rail is the second biggest carrier of rail freight and the biggest carrier of passenger transport in the world. It has the largest combined rail traffic task of any national railway system in the world, carrying about a quarter of the world's railway traffic on about seven percent of the global route-km of public railway. This paper describes how the Ministry of Railways, and its constituent regional railway administrations and other entities, have created a modern rail system by adopting proven international practices and technologies, giving them distinct Chinese characteristics, and adapting them to Chinese circumstances.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: World Bank;

    Within the European Union (EU) rail transport is currently the least integrated transport mode. This leads to delays, extra costs, and insufficient use of rail freight, especially for time-sensitive cargo. This also represents a missed opportunity in terms of moving towards a greener transport modal split within the EU. Rail freight, for which international activity represents 50 percent of total activities, will not be able to develop fully if border crossing rail operations do not deliver a better service for shippers and freight operators who require seamless trans-national transport as is possible by road, air and sea. Observing that the modal split of rail in the EU is stagnating at around 16 percent after years of decline, the European Commission proposed a regulation on a European rail network for competitive freight to be based on a number of rail freight corridors which entered into force on November 9, 2010. Regulation No 913/2010 makes it mandatory to create a European rail network for competitive freight based on international freight corridors, recognizing that the need to strengthen the competitiveness of rail freight requires a corridor approach, involving corridors that cross national borders. TheEU adoption in 2010 of a corridor approach focusing on international rail freight has important implications for EU member states, accession and candidate countries, in terms of approaching rail freight investments and performance from an international corridor perspective with enhanced cross-border coordination, with the ultimate aim of increasing the attractiveness of rail to potential freight customers. The objective of this report is to address this recommendation by assessing whether it makes sense to introduce a pilot EDI in a rail border crossing point in South East Europe. It aims to make a preliminary assessment of the various technical options in terms of hardware, software, and communication requirements of such architecture, taking into account that any technical solution proposed needs to be adapted to the countries in question, given existing infrastructure and European regulations. The ultimate aim is to improve rail border crossing performance in South East Europe by the use of EDI to improve integration.

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    Report . 2015
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      Report . 2015
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    Authors: Williams, Robert; Greig, David; Wallis, Ian;

    This paper has been prepared for the World Bank as one of a series of research papers focusing on rail privatization experience throughout the world. The scope of this paper covers rail privatization experience in Australia and New Zealand, much of which occurred over the ten year period from 1993 to 2003. Overall the rail freight privatization experience in Australia and New Zealand, taken in concert with other market and structural reforms, has been positive, although not uniformly so: In Australia, the largely privatized rail freight industry is markedly stronger today than at any time over the last few decades and is competing aggressively for a greater role in the national transport and logistics market; and In New Zealand, the initial success of privatization with increased rail traffic and increased profits has not been sustained: the government has been obliged to take back the network and to commit significant public funds to address deficiencies in the network assets.

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    Authors: Blancas, Luis C.; Ollivier, Gerald; Bullock, Richard;