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  • Authors: XiPeng Xiao;

    This chapter introduces a technical approach for delivering QoS in the business model, and describes how it addresses the integration, and the complexity challenges. This technical approach consists of the several steps that include network planning, network auditing, traffic control, traffic optimization, and performance measurement. Network planning is to plan and provision one's network so that it meets current and future demand in a cost-effective way. Network planning sets the network structure, capacity, routing policies, and security framework. Traffic control deals with optimizing traffic distribution inside the framework, either in normal network condition, or in failure scenarios. Common traffic control schemes include traffic engineering, traffic protection, and restoration, and traffic management. Interdomain traffic engineering can introduce significant traffic distribution change in a network. Traffic engineering with MPLS tunnels is a well-known traffic engineering approach. MPLS traffic engineering allows network operators to assign a bandwidth value to each link. The assigned bandwidth usually equals to the physical bandwidth of the link. MPLS traffic engineering also allows the assignment of a bandwidth value to each MPLS tunnel. This value usually equals to the amount of traffic carried by the tunnel, as measured.

    https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Abdul Mateen; Fahim Arif; Shahid Kamal;

    Traffic management especially in big cities is a common problem in all over the world. Therefore, traffic management problem on the signals is getting importance and should be solved to save the fuel, time and environment as well. The proposed research is based on the traffic flow and assigns time accordingly. It also provides a way for safe and fast passage for emergency vehicles by sending their information to next signals. The proposed traffic management solution is followed by a case study that reveals the performance and effectiveness of the solution.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://www.atlantis...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doi.org/10.2991/icibet...
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      https://doi.org/10.2991/icibet...
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  • Authors: Nan Zhang; Zhengge Gou;

    Traffic sign is the language of a traffic controller. Being an important human-machine interface in traffic system, rationality of traffic sign design is directly related to traffic safety and traffic efficiency. The design must match the physiological and psychological characteristics of human beings. In this paper, key factors in the traffic sign design are studied based on Ergonomics theory. The adaptabilities of the current traffic signs are investigated, analyzed and the inadequacies of the existing traffic signs are highlighted. The necessary improvements in traffic sign design are suggested.

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    M.Ing. Traffic has become an extreme irritation and costly entity to deal with in recent years. Gone are the days where one could simply widen roadways to increase flow rates due to space constraints. Traffic costs countries billions of dollars per annum and thus the need to alleviate traffic congestion. Many technologies are currently available that can be used to lower the traffic density at an intersection, one of them being the use of cameras. Not only are digital cameras dropping in price, but the associated cost of maintenance is low. Distance information of a scene can thus be calculated via a visual system and from this information advanced control can be implemented in order to maximise traffic flow through an intersection. A traffic simulator was coded and analysed in order to validate the use of a visual system for increasing the amount of cars passing through the intersection per unit time over the current fixed timing system. Two different algorithms were compared to the current fixed timing scheme using a traffic simulator. The results showed that an improvement can be achieved over the current fixed timing scheme (of up to 19.92%). The use of stereovision as a method of attempting to monitor traffic flow is discussed. Vehicles were tracked using 13 trackers and the distance away from the stereo setup was calculated and compared to the actual distance away from the stereo setup. The best results found that with a baseline distance of 1500mm the average error in determining the distance of a vehicle was 16.46m. Although this error is quite large, it is still possible to monitor traffic flow using stereo vision with these inputs. Some of the issues that may cause these errors are camera quality, camera calibration and variable lighting conditions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ University of Johann...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Day, Christopher M.; Bullock, Darcy M.; Li, Howell; Lavrenz, Steven M.; +2 Authors

    This report discusses uses of and requirements for performance measures in traffic signal systems facilitated by high-resolution controller event data. Uses of external travel time measurements are also discussed. The discussion is led by a high-level synthesis of the systems engineering concepts for traffic signal control, considering technical and non-technical aspects of the problem. This is followed by a presentation of the requirements for implementing data collection and processing of the data into signal performance measures. The remaining portion of the report uses an example-oriented approach to showing a variety of uses of performance measures for communication and detector system health, quality of local control (including capacity allocation, safety, pedestrian performance, preemption, and advanced control analysis), and quality of progression (including evaluation and optimization).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Purdue E-Scholararrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Purdue E-Scholararrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dragutin Jovanović; Milorad Opsenica;

    Level crossings represent bottlenecks from the aspect of vehicle capacity as one of basic parameters for traffic flow. From the railway traffic aspect they represent weak points on railway tracks due to rails exposure to the dynamic influence of road vehicles. In order to protect traffic safety appropriate triangles ought to be provided for railway tracks in direction as well as for tracks in curves and low trenches. Participants in road traffic are more in danger than participants in railway traffic. On level crossings with intensive dynamic of railway traffic time and material losses in road traffic are more significant. All aspects of these specific bottlenecks are treated in this paper as well as their effects on military road transportation.

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    Vojnotehnički glasnik
    Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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      Vojnotehnički glasnik
      Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Glen A. Gilbert;
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  • Authors: Jean Emmanuel Bakaba; Jörg Ortlepp;

    Different types of intersection were simulated with different traffic control variants. Simulation results of a wide range of types of intersection and traffic signal phases showed that an additional protected green phase for traffic turning left generally resulted in no relevant restrictions to the capacity of the intersection. In the case of large intersections with a high volume of traffic, a protected signal for traffic turning left increases safety for traffic turning left and oncoming vehicles. In the case of large intersections with a medium volume of traffic and small intersections with a high volume of traffic, lprotectedr systems for traffic turning left are the most efficient solution both in terms of traffic flow and road safety. Standardising these types of regulation at traffic light controlled intersections helps to reduce conflicts between turning left vehicles and pedestrians and cyclists too. The number and the severity of accidents involving pedestrians and cyclists at such intersections can be reduced significantly.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: D.C. Gazis; L.C. Edie;

    The traffic theorist of today has an ever-increasing capacity to bring a wide range of technical skills to bear on the pressing problems of traffic congestion, delays, and accidents with their ensuing economic and personal costs. These problems are very complex, but well-defined aspects of them can be dealt with theoretically in explicit mathematical form. Illustrations are given as to how this may be done in meaningful ways to find the relationships between important variables and to determine the influence of parameter values on the performance of traffic systems. The problems discussed consider traffic flow in single and multiple lanes, interference between vehicles and queue formations, single and multiple intersection flows and control and road networks.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Proceedings of the I...arrow_drop_down
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    Proceedings of the IEEE
    Article . 1968 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Proceedings of the I...arrow_drop_down
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      Proceedings of the IEEE
      Article . 1968 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Masashi Hashimoto; A. Fukuda; K.-i. Yukimatsu;

    This paper proposes a traffic control scheme that uses application flows as identified by application information in the packets being transferred. The proposal increases flexibility in terms of IP packet routing. First, it is confirmed that individual application flows can be routed through their own minimum-cost paths. Cost is determined, for each flow, from one or more QoS parameters, for example, delay and availability. Next, it facilitates traffic engineering, namely the efficient utilization of network resources. In this situation, one source-destination traffic demand is satisfied by setting one or more flows as needed for traffic grooming. Numerical results show that the proposal allows the network to accommodate more traffic even if the cost-routed traffic create a bottleneck link.

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  • Authors: XiPeng Xiao;

    This chapter introduces a technical approach for delivering QoS in the business model, and describes how it addresses the integration, and the complexity challenges. This technical approach consists of the several steps that include network planning, network auditing, traffic control, traffic optimization, and performance measurement. Network planning is to plan and provision one's network so that it meets current and future demand in a cost-effective way. Network planning sets the network structure, capacity, routing policies, and security framework. Traffic control deals with optimizing traffic distribution inside the framework, either in normal network condition, or in failure scenarios. Common traffic control schemes include traffic engineering, traffic protection, and restoration, and traffic management. Interdomain traffic engineering can introduce significant traffic distribution change in a network. Traffic engineering with MPLS tunnels is a well-known traffic engineering approach. MPLS traffic engineering allows network operators to assign a bandwidth value to each link. The assigned bandwidth usually equals to the physical bandwidth of the link. MPLS traffic engineering also allows the assignment of a bandwidth value to each MPLS tunnel. This value usually equals to the amount of traffic carried by the tunnel, as measured.

    https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0...
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      https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0...
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Abdul Mateen; Fahim Arif; Shahid Kamal;

    Traffic management especially in big cities is a common problem in all over the world. Therefore, traffic management problem on the signals is getting importance and should be solved to save the fuel, time and environment as well. The proposed research is based on the traffic flow and assigns time accordingly. It also provides a way for safe and fast passage for emergency vehicles by sending their information to next signals. The proposed traffic management solution is followed by a case study that reveals the performance and effectiveness of the solution.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://www.atlantis...arrow_drop_down
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    https://www.atlantis-press.com...
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      https://doi.org/10.2991/icibet...
      Conference object . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Nan Zhang; Zhengge Gou;

    Traffic sign is the language of a traffic controller. Being an important human-machine interface in traffic system, rationality of traffic sign design is directly related to traffic safety and traffic efficiency. The design must match the physiological and psychological characteristics of human beings. In this paper, key factors in the traffic sign design are studied based on Ergonomics theory. The adaptabilities of the current traffic signs are investigated, analyzed and the inadequacies of the existing traffic signs are highlighted. The necessary improvements in traffic sign design are suggested.

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    M.Ing. Traffic has become an extreme irritation and costly entity to deal with in recent years. Gone are the days where one could simply widen roadways to increase flow rates due to space constraints. Traffic costs countries billions of dollars per annum and thus the need to alleviate traffic congestion. Many technologies are currently available that can be used to lower the traffic density at an intersection, one of them being the use of cameras. Not only are digital cameras dropping in price, but the associated cost of maintenance is low. Distance information of a scene can thus be calculated via a visual system and from this information advanced control can be implemented in order to maximise traffic flow through an intersection. A traffic simulator was coded and analysed in order to validate the use of a visual system for increasing the amount of cars passing through the intersection per unit time over the current fixed timing system. Two different algorithms were compared to the current fixed timing scheme using a traffic simulator. The results showed that an improvement can be achieved over the current fixed timing scheme (of up to 19.92%). The use of stereovision as a method of attempting to monitor traffic flow is discussed. Vehicles were tracked using 13 trackers and the distance away from the stereo setup was calculated and compared to the actual distance away from the stereo setup. The best results found that with a baseline distance of 1500mm the average error in determining the distance of a vehicle was 16.46m. Although this error is quite large, it is still possible to monitor traffic flow using stereo vision with these inputs. Some of the issues that may cause these errors are camera quality, camera calibration and variable lighting conditions.

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    Authors: Day, Christopher M.; Bullock, Darcy M.; Li, Howell; Lavrenz, Steven M.; +2 Authors

    This report discusses uses of and requirements for performance measures in traffic signal systems facilitated by high-resolution controller event data. Uses of external travel time measurements are also discussed. The discussion is led by a high-level synthesis of the systems engineering concepts for traffic signal control, considering technical and non-technical aspects of the problem. This is followed by a presentation of the requirements for implementing data collection and processing of the data into signal performance measures. The remaining portion of the report uses an example-oriented approach to showing a variety of uses of performance measures for communication and detector system health, quality of local control (including capacity allocation, safety, pedestrian performance, preemption, and advanced control analysis), and quality of progression (including evaluation and optimization).

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    Authors: Dragutin Jovanović; Milorad Opsenica;

    Level crossings represent bottlenecks from the aspect of vehicle capacity as one of basic parameters for traffic flow. From the railway traffic aspect they represent weak points on railway tracks due to rails exposure to the dynamic influence of road vehicles. In order to protect traffic safety appropriate triangles ought to be provided for railway tracks in direction as well as for tracks in curves and low trenches. Participants in road traffic are more in danger than participants in railway traffic. On level crossings with intensive dynamic of railway traffic time and material losses in road traffic are more significant. All aspects of these specific bottlenecks are treated in this paper as well as their effects on military road transportation.

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    Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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