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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Popoola M., O.; Abiola S., O.; Adeniji W., A.;

    {"references": ["", "Aderamo, A. J and Atomode. T.I. (2011) Traffic Congestion at Road Intersection in Ilorin, Nigeria. Australian Journal of Basics and Applied Sciences, 5 (9). 1439-1448.", "Agbonika, F.O (2011). Road Traffic Congestion and the quest for effective Transportation. Proceedings of the National Conference of Nigerian Society of Engineers in Calabar.", "Aworemi, J. R., Abdul-Azeez, I. A., Oyedokun, A. J. and Adewoye, J. O (2009) A study of the causes, effects and Ameliorative Measures of Road Traffic Congestion in Lagos Metropolis. European Journal of Social Sciences. II (1), 2009.", "Bashiru, A. R. and Waziri, O. O. (2008). Analysis of intra-Urban Traffic Problems in Nigeria: A study of Lagos Metropolis. Indonesian Journal of Geography 40 (1), 31-51.", "Haruna. M. S. (2011). Road Surveillance as a Remedy for Effective Transportation in Nigeria.", "Igwe, C. N et al (2011). Effective Transportation System in Nigeria: The Challenge of Nigerian Entrepreneurs Poor Designs. Proceedings of the National Conference of Nigerian Society of Engineers in Calabar.", "Lim, E.C., & Alum, J., (1995). Construction productivity: issues encountered by contractors in Singapore. International Journal of Project Management, 13 (1), 51\u201358.", "Momoh, O. A (2011). Transportation planning and management for economic development: Global best practices. Proceedings of the National Conference of Nigerian Society of Engineers in Calabar.", "Moses S.O (2011), Information technology applications in transportation system. Proceedings of the National Conference of Nigerian Society of Engineers in Calabar.\n[10] OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and ECMT (European Conference of Ministers of Transport). Joint Transport Research Centre (2007). Managing Urban Traffic Congestion (Summary Document). \n[11] Ogunbodede, E.F (nd) Assessment of Traffic Congestions in Akure (Nigerian) Using GIS Approach: Lessons and Challenges for Urban Substances. \n[12] Ogunsanya A.A (2002). Maker and Breakers of Cities. 59th Inaugural Lecture, University of Ilorin. \n[13] Onokala, P.C. (2008) Contribution of Road Transportation to Environmental Degradation in Nigerian Urban Centres : A Critical Analysis. Annual Conference on Public Transportation at the Lagos Sheraton Hotel & Towers Ikeja.\n\n "]} This study investigates the causes, effects and remedies of traffic congestion which has become a common sight in most highways in Nigeria; Mowe/Ibafo section of the Lagos-Ibadan expressway was used as the case-study. 300 Structured questionnaires were distributed among the road users comprising drivers (Private and Commercial), passengers, pedestrians, traffic officers, church congregations, community leaders, Mowe/Ibafo residents, and other users of the road. 300 questionnaires were given out; the average of 276 well completed returned questionnaires formed the basis of the study and was analyzed by the Relative Importance Index (R.I.I.). The result from the study showed the causes of traffic congestion as inadequate road capacity, poor road pavement, poor traffic management, poor drainage system poor driving habit, poor parking habit, poor design junctions/round-about, presence of heavy trucks, lack of pedestrian facilities, lack of road furniture, lack of parking facilities and others. Effects of road congestion from the study are waste of time, delay movement, stress, accident, inability to forecast travel of time, fuel consumption, road rage, relocation, night driving, and environmental pollution. To drastically reduce these negative effects; there must be provision for adequate parking space, construction of proper drainage, enlarging the width of the road, rehabilitate all roads needing attention, public enlightenment, traffic education, hack down all illegal buildings/shops built on the right of way (ROW), create a separate/alternative root for trucks and heavy vehicles, provision of pedestrian facilities, In-depth training of transport/traffic personnel, ban all form of road trading/hawking, and reduce the number of bus-stop where necessary. It is hoped that this study will become the foundation of further research in the area of improve road traffic management on our major highway.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Suleiman, Ghassan M.;

    Günümüzde büyük kentlerin çoğunda gözlemlenen trafik tıkanıklıkları, son yıllarda sahip olunan otomobil sayısının ve araç kullanımının sürekli artması ve buna karşılık yol altyapısının bu artan kullanım talebini karşılayacak ölçüde gelişememesi sonucu büyük bir sorun olarak ortaya çıkmaktadır. Trafik sıkışıklığından kaynaklanan olumsuz etkiler: gecikmelerin artışı, trafik akım hızının azalması ve buna bağlı olarak yakıt tüketiminin artışıdır. İstanbul gibi yüksek bir nüfusun yoğun ve hızla artan şehirleşme koşulları altında yaşadığı kentlerin ulaştırma altyapısı içerisinde varolan ana ulaşım hatlarında trafiğe bağlı sorunlar, ulaştırma altyapısına dahil diğer hatlara oranla daha da belirginleşmektedir. Köprü ve tünel gibi ulaştırma sanat yapılarına, farklı kentsel bölgelerden topladığı türlü trafik türlerini ve yoğunluklarını aktaran ana arterin trafik akışının belirli değerler arasında tutulması gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, köprü ve tünel gibi, genelde çift yönlü yoğun trafik taşıyan, kentin iki ayrı kısmında yer alan ana arterleri birbirleri ile birleştiren ve bir kentin ulaştırma altyapısı içerisinde tekil olarak ortaya çıkan ve kentiçi ulaşımda önemli görev üstlenen yapılara ulaşan trafiğin hız yönetimi ile trafik sıkışıklığını azaltmak için temelinde hız kontrolü esaslı bir yöntemin önerilmesidir. Başka bir deyişle bu çalışma içerisinde köprü ve tünel gibi bir sanat yapısına ulaşan ara arterin üzerindeki trafik akışı üzerinde 1. Hız yönetiminin, 2. Katılım kontrolünün, 3. Arter üzerindeki şerit sayısı ve şerit genişliği değerlerinin, 4. Katılım noktaları arasında mesafelerin ve 5. Katılım noktaları arasındaki şerit sayılarının değişiminin arter üzerinde oluşan gecikmeler üzerine etkileri araştırılmıştır. Gereken çalışmaları yapmak üzere toplanan saha verileri rakamsal bir model geliştirmek üzere kullanılmış ve elde edilen model ile önceki paragrafta sıralanan türlü parametrik değerlendirmeler yapılmıştır. Altıncı bölümde ise çalışmanın kullanım sahası ve gelişitirilmeye açık yönleri aktarılarak tez sonuçlandırılmıştır. Çalışmanın amacına ulaşabilmek için yukarıdaki belirtilen değişkenler ile trafik gecikmeleri arasındaki ilişkileri belirtmek amacıyla toplanan alan verileri kullanarak matematiksel modeller geliştirilmiştir. Çalışmanın sonuçlarına göre, optimom hız 65 km / saat olduğunu göstermiştir. Hız yönetimi bu hız değeri ile uygulayarak ortalama hız, mevcut duruma göre % 36 artış, gecikmeler ise 18% azaltmada olduğu ifade edilmiştir. Ayrıca, bazı geometrik düzenlemeleri (şerit ekleme, katılım bölgelerindeki oluşan çift sıranın bir sıra indirilmesi) önerilmiştir. Analiz bu geometrik düzenlemenin ağın performansı üzerinde son derece etkili olduğunu gösterilerek, ortlama hız 49%, gecikmeler ise 32% azaldığı sonuçlandırılmıştır. Ağır taşıt yüzdesinin Trafik gecikmeleri üzerinde etkisi incelenmiştir. Ağır vasıta yüzdesinin toplam gecikme üzerinde olumlu iken, şerit genişliğinin olumsuz etkisi olduğu varılmıştır. Ayrıca yukarıda belirtilen parametreler ziyade, rampa kontrolü ve Otomatik Geçiş Sistemi (APS) test edilmiştir. Rampa kontrolü için optimum döngü süresi hesaplanmıştır. Son olarak, katılım ve ayrım arasındaki mesafenin oluşan gecikmeler üzerinde etkisi VİSSIM ile test edilmiştir. Sonuçlar uygulamada 600 metre, ideal 900 metre olduğunu belirltilmiştir. Altıncı bölümde elde edilen sonuçların uygulamanın olası alanları ve gelecekteki çalışmalar için önerilen geliştirmeleri içerir.Anahtar Kelime : Trafik sıkışıklığı, Gecikme, Hız Yönetimi, Simülasyon The growth in urban traffic congestion has become a serious problem in all large metropolitan areas. In recent years the result of the increasing car ownership, the continuous increase of the vehicle use corresponding to the non development of road infrastructure to meet the increasing user demand is considered as a major problem. The adverse effects of traffic congestion are: increased delays, reduced traffic flow speed and the increase of fuel consumption. The problems of main transportation lines related to the traffic which arises as a result of rapid increase in population density and urbanization are more prominent than the infrastructural problems. The traffic flow at the main arterials, which transports various traffic types and densities to the engineering structures such as bridges and tunnels, should be kept and controlled under certain values. The purpose of this study is to prpose a model for reducing traffic congestion on structures such as bridges and tunnels, as a part of a major highway network carrying dense traffic within the city's transport infrastructure, by speed management based on speed control. In other words, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of speed management, percent of heavy vehicles, the distance between on and off-ramps, number of lanes and lane widths, geometric improvement and ramp metering on delays occurring in traffic leading to such major structures as bridges and tunnels.To reach the aim of the study, the collected field data were used to develop mathematical models to explain how traffic delay is related to the variables mentioned above. The study shwoed that the optimom speed is 65 km/hours. The aplayying of speed maagement by this speed value would resaulted in 18% decreasing in delays, for average speed was increased by 36% according to the current situation. İn addition, some of geometric improvements (like lane addition, decreasing of double queuing at On-Ramps to one before merging) were proposed. The analysis showed that geometric improvements were highly effective on network performance that resulted rising by %32 in average speed and reduction by 49% for delays. The impact of heavy vehicle percent and lane width on traffic delays were also studied. For lane width has negative effect on total delay while the heavy vehicle percent was positive. In addition the parameters that mentioned above, ramp metering and Automatic Pass System (APS) were tested. For ramp metering optimum cycle time were computed. Finally, the distance between on & off-ramps were tested by VİSSIM. The results identified that 600 meters in practice, the ideal is the 900 meters. The sixth chapter includes possible areas of the application of the obtained results and the suggested improvements for future studies. Keywords: Traffic Congestion, Delay, Speed Management, Simulation. 141

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    Authors: Zhongwen Gao; Ling Ding; Weiwei Song;
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    Authors: Muhammed, Bikis;

    The PeMS traffic datasets have been collected by the California Transportation (Caltrans) agency for 30-second granularity, and the raw and aggregated data are publicly available on their website (https://pems.dot.ca.gov/?dnode=Clearinghouse&type=meta&district_id=7&submit=Submit). We have gathered 5-minute aggregated vehicular traffic state (i.e traffic speed) dataset for district four and seven of California for 2022. We have used Bing Distance Matrix API to compute a driving distance between each sensor. The API can be used to compute a driving distance between a single source or multiple sources and source or multiple destinations at once. In addition, the weather datasets have been collected from https://www.visualcrossing.com/weather/weather-data-services and the datasets have one-hour granularity, and we have only removed some of the unnecessary columns.

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    Authors: Coifman, Benjamin;

    This paper presents microscopic time-space diagrams for several shock waves over 100-200m distances. The primary focus of the paper is on presenting the data rather than analysis. The diagrams should be of general interest to researchers studying traffic congestion.

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    Authors: Thulasi Bikku; V. Lakshman Narayana; Arepalli Peda Gopi; Sk. Reshmi Khadherbhi;

    Nowadays the number of vehicles on the road has been expanded exponentially, but the limitations of roads and transportation frameworks have not created in a comparable method to effectively adapt with the number of vehicles going on them. Because of this, road congestion has expanded around the world. Sensor systems have increased by expanding consideration in rush hour traffic identification and maintaining a strategic distance from heavy traffic. WSNs are extremely smart because of their quicker exchange of data, simple establishment and for being more affordable contrasted with other systems. Remote sensor systems are an innovation which has assumed an enormous job empowering smarter city urban communities is utilizing this innovation to accumulate information identified with movement. The goal is to have an entire framework that empowers the observing of activity practices so choices on city advancement can be made smarter. This paper provides a survey on road traffic congestion control with the help of sensors which communicate with other vehicles nearby for avoiding traffic as well as road accidents. This paper performs a survey on various techniques on road traffic reduction methods of road accidents using sensors.

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    https://doi.org/10.1109/i-smac...
    Conference object . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1109/i-smac...
      Conference object . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Md. Mohayminul Islam; Md. Sirajul Islam; Rahman, Faysal Ibna;

    Rajshahi, the 4th largest metropolitan city of Bangladesh have such roadway networks which were designed decades ago and nowadays they are facing problems in housing the increasing amount of traffic. As a result, the mobility of the traffic system has been hampered causing congestion and slower movement of vehicles. For this, inability to use the full capacity of roads is considered to be the main matter of concern. The study investigated the main reasons behind capacity loss on major city roads. To do, seven busiest roads of Rajshahi city were chosen. Then, a survey was carried out to identify the key factors which play lead role in reducing overall capacity. Through the survey some reasons like; on-street parking(37.23%), parking near intersections(30.5%), existence of shops on roads(3.61%), periodic maintenance(16.2%), lack of facilities of waste disposal(2.8%) were mostly found prominent. Overall, the study has shown some potential findings regarding major city road capacity conditions.

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  • Authors: Haojie Li; Liang Gao;
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    Authors: Nizami Gyulyev; Oleksii Prasolenko; Eugene Litomin; Daria Zinchenko;

    The object of research is the process of the driver’s labor activity on city roads in the city’s transport system during the transportation of goods and passengers. The influence of traffic congestion on the functional state of a sanguine driver is studied, which is one of the most common types of temperament. The main hypothesis of the study is that the level of driver fatigue in traffic congestion, which affects the driver’s reaction time and road safety, depends on the driver’s condition and traffic congestion parameters. The driver’s fatigue level is determined based on the concept of the cardiovascular system, as an indicator of the adaptive and adaptive activity of the body by measuring the electrocardiogram. In this case, the unevenness of the cardio intervals is analyzed, which is a universal response to any kind of load. Fatigue level is calculated in arbitrary units according to a special algorithm that takes into account statistical indicators, histogram indicators and data of spectral analysis of cardio intervals. Using a non-linear model of changing the functional state of a sanguine driver, the patterns of changes in the fatigue level under various conditions of stay in traffic congestion are obtained. It is revealed that the most significant factor that affects the final level of driver fatigue in traffic congestion is its initial value before traffic congestion. The second most important parameter affecting the change in the fatigue level of the sanguine driver is the duration of traffic congestion, which affects the initial function only together with the initial fatigue level. The influence of the age of the sanguine driver on the fatigue level in the traffic congestion is manifested to a lesser extent. However, the conditions of stay in traffic congestion most noticeably affect older drivers (sixty or more years) compared with young drivers of twenty years. Analysis of the research results shows that traffic congestions lasting more than twelve minutes lead to a significant increase in the fatigue level of a sanguine driver. This may increase the likelihood of a traffic accident. The trends in the fatigue level of sanguine driver in traffic congestions identified during the study allow to predict the driver’s behavior after exiting a traffic congestion and evaluate possible patterns of road traffic development that directly affect road safety.

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    Tehnologìčnij Audit ta Rezervi Virobnictva
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Tehnologìčnij Audit ta Rezervi Virobnictva
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Shaheen, Susan, PhD; Stocker, Adam; Meza, Ruth;

    To better understand the equity implications of a variety of congestion management strategies, researchers at the Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC) at University of California, Berkeley analyzed existing literature on congestion management strategies and findings from 12 expert interviews. The literature review applies the Spatial – Temporal – Economic – Physiological – Social (STEPS) Equity Framework1 to identify impacts and classify whether social equity barriers are reduced, exacerbated, or both by a particular strategy. The congestion management strategies of interest were categorized into six broader categories: 1) pricing, 2) parking and curb policies, 3) operational strategies, 4) infrastructure changes, 5) transportation services and strategies, and 6) conventional taxation.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Popoola M., O.; Abiola S., O.; Adeniji W., A.;

    {"references": ["", "Aderamo, A. J and Atomode. T.I. (2011) Traffic Congestion at Road Intersection in Ilorin, Nigeria. Australian Journal of Basics and Applied Sciences, 5 (9). 1439-1448.", "Agbonika, F.O (2011). Road Traffic Congestion and the quest for effective Transportation. Proceedings of the National Conference of Nigerian Society of Engineers in Calabar.", "Aworemi, J. R., Abdul-Azeez, I. A., Oyedokun, A. J. and Adewoye, J. O (2009) A study of the causes, effects and Ameliorative Measures of Road Traffic Congestion in Lagos Metropolis. European Journal of Social Sciences. II (1), 2009.", "Bashiru, A. R. and Waziri, O. O. (2008). Analysis of intra-Urban Traffic Problems in Nigeria: A study of Lagos Metropolis. Indonesian Journal of Geography 40 (1), 31-51.", "Haruna. M. S. (2011). Road Surveillance as a Remedy for Effective Transportation in Nigeria.", "Igwe, C. N et al (2011). Effective Transportation System in Nigeria: The Challenge of Nigerian Entrepreneurs Poor Designs. Proceedings of the National Conference of Nigerian Society of Engineers in Calabar.", "Lim, E.C., & Alum, J., (1995). Construction productivity: issues encountered by contractors in Singapore. International Journal of Project Management, 13 (1), 51\u201358.", "Momoh, O. A (2011). Transportation planning and management for economic development: Global best practices. Proceedings of the National Conference of Nigerian Society of Engineers in Calabar.", "Moses S.O (2011), Information technology applications in transportation system. Proceedings of the National Conference of Nigerian Society of Engineers in Calabar.\n[10] OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and ECMT (European Conference of Ministers of Transport). Joint Transport Research Centre (2007). Managing Urban Traffic Congestion (Summary Document). \n[11] Ogunbodede, E.F (nd) Assessment of Traffic Congestions in Akure (Nigerian) Using GIS Approach: Lessons and Challenges for Urban Substances. \n[12] Ogunsanya A.A (2002). Maker and Breakers of Cities. 59th Inaugural Lecture, University of Ilorin. \n[13] Onokala, P.C. (2008) Contribution of Road Transportation to Environmental Degradation in Nigerian Urban Centres : A Critical Analysis. Annual Conference on Public Transportation at the Lagos Sheraton Hotel & Towers Ikeja.\n\n "]} This study investigates the causes, effects and remedies of traffic congestion which has become a common sight in most highways in Nigeria; Mowe/Ibafo section of the Lagos-Ibadan expressway was used as the case-study. 300 Structured questionnaires were distributed among the road users comprising drivers (Private and Commercial), passengers, pedestrians, traffic officers, church congregations, community leaders, Mowe/Ibafo residents, and other users of the road. 300 questionnaires were given out; the average of 276 well completed returned questionnaires formed the basis of the study and was analyzed by the Relative Importance Index (R.I.I.). The result from the study showed the causes of traffic congestion as inadequate road capacity, poor road pavement, poor traffic management, poor drainage system poor driving habit, poor parking habit, poor design junctions/round-about, presence of heavy trucks, lack of pedestrian facilities, lack of road furniture, lack of parking facilities and others. Effects of road congestion from the study are waste of time, delay movement, stress, accident, inability to forecast travel of time, fuel consumption, road rage, relocation, night driving, and environmental pollution. To drastically reduce these negative effects; there must be provision for adequate parking space, construction of proper drainage, enlarging the width of the road, rehabilitate all roads needing attention, public enlightenment, traffic education, hack down all illegal buildings/shops built on the right of way (ROW), create a separate/alternative root for trucks and heavy vehicles, provision of pedestrian facilities, In-depth training of transport/traffic personnel, ban all form of road trading/hawking, and reduce the number of bus-stop where necessary. It is hoped that this study will become the foundation of further research in the area of improve road traffic management on our major highway.

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    Authors: Suleiman, Ghassan M.;

    Günümüzde büyük kentlerin çoğunda gözlemlenen trafik tıkanıklıkları, son yıllarda sahip olunan otomobil sayısının ve araç kullanımının sürekli artması ve buna karşılık yol altyapısının bu artan kullanım talebini karşılayacak ölçüde gelişememesi sonucu büyük bir sorun olarak ortaya çıkmaktadır. Trafik sıkışıklığından kaynaklanan olumsuz etkiler: gecikmelerin artışı, trafik akım hızının azalması ve buna bağlı olarak yakıt tüketiminin artışıdır. İstanbul gibi yüksek bir nüfusun yoğun ve hızla artan şehirleşme koşulları altında yaşadığı kentlerin ulaştırma altyapısı içerisinde varolan ana ulaşım hatlarında trafiğe bağlı sorunlar, ulaştırma altyapısına dahil diğer hatlara oranla daha da belirginleşmektedir. Köprü ve tünel gibi ulaştırma sanat yapılarına, farklı kentsel bölgelerden topladığı türlü trafik türlerini ve yoğunluklarını aktaran ana arterin trafik akışının belirli değerler arasında tutulması gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, köprü ve tünel gibi, genelde çift yönlü yoğun trafik taşıyan, kentin iki ayrı kısmında yer alan ana arterleri birbirleri ile birleştiren ve bir kentin ulaştırma altyapısı içerisinde tekil olarak ortaya çıkan ve kentiçi ulaşımda önemli görev üstlenen yapılara ulaşan trafiğin hız yönetimi ile trafik sıkışıklığını azaltmak için temelinde hız kontrolü esaslı bir yöntemin önerilmesidir. Başka bir deyişle bu çalışma içerisinde köprü ve tünel gibi bir sanat yapısına ulaşan ara arterin üzerindeki trafik akışı üzerinde 1. Hız yönetiminin, 2. Katılım kontrolünün, 3. Arter üzerindeki şerit sayısı ve şerit genişliği değerlerinin, 4. Katılım noktaları arasında mesafelerin ve 5. Katılım noktaları arasındaki şerit sayılarının değişiminin arter üzerinde oluşan gecikmeler üzerine etkileri araştırılmıştır. Gereken çalışmaları yapmak üzere toplanan saha verileri rakamsal bir model geliştirmek üzere kullanılmış ve elde edilen model ile önceki paragrafta sıralanan türlü parametrik değerlendirmeler yapılmıştır. Altıncı bölümde ise çalışmanın kullanım sahası ve gelişitirilmeye açık yönleri aktarılarak tez sonuçlandırılmıştır. Çalışmanın amacına ulaşabilmek için yukarıdaki belirtilen değişkenler ile trafik gecikmeleri arasındaki ilişkileri belirtmek amacıyla toplanan alan verileri kullanarak matematiksel modeller geliştirilmiştir. Çalışmanın sonuçlarına göre, optimom hız 65 km / saat olduğunu göstermiştir. Hız yönetimi bu hız değeri ile uygulayarak ortalama hız, mevcut duruma göre % 36 artış, gecikmeler ise 18% azaltmada olduğu ifade edilmiştir. Ayrıca, bazı geometrik düzenlemeleri (şerit ekleme, katılım bölgelerindeki oluşan çift sıranın bir sıra indirilmesi) önerilmiştir. Analiz bu geometrik düzenlemenin ağın performansı üzerinde son derece etkili olduğunu gösterilerek, ortlama hız 49%, gecikmeler ise 32% azaldığı sonuçlandırılmıştır. Ağır taşıt yüzdesinin Trafik gecikmeleri üzerinde etkisi incelenmiştir. Ağır vasıta yüzdesinin toplam gecikme üzerinde olumlu iken, şerit genişliğinin olumsuz etkisi olduğu varılmıştır. Ayrıca yukarıda belirtilen parametreler ziyade, rampa kontrolü ve Otomatik Geçiş Sistemi (APS) test edilmiştir. Rampa kontrolü için optimum döngü süresi hesaplanmıştır. Son olarak, katılım ve ayrım arasındaki mesafenin oluşan gecikmeler üzerinde etkisi VİSSIM ile test edilmiştir. Sonuçlar uygulamada 600 metre, ideal 900 metre olduğunu belirltilmiştir. Altıncı bölümde elde edilen sonuçların uygulamanın olası alanları ve gelecekteki çalışmalar için önerilen geliştirmeleri içerir.Anahtar Kelime : Trafik sıkışıklığı, Gecikme, Hız Yönetimi, Simülasyon The growth in urban traffic congestion has become a serious problem in all large metropolitan areas. In recent years the result of the increasing car ownership, the continuous increase of the vehicle use corresponding to the non development of road infrastructure to meet the increasing user demand is considered as a major problem. The adverse effects of traffic congestion are: increased delays, reduced traffic flow speed and the increase of fuel consumption. The problems of main transportation lines related to the traffic which arises as a result of rapid increase in population density and urbanization are more prominent than the infrastructural problems. The traffic flow at the main arterials, which transports various traffic types and densities to the engineering structures such as bridges and tunnels, should be kept and controlled under certain values. The purpose of this study is to prpose a model for reducing traffic congestion on structures such as bridges and tunnels, as a part of a major highway network carrying dense traffic within the city's transport infrastructure, by speed management based on speed control. In other words, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of speed management, percent of heavy vehicles, the distance between on and off-ramps, number of lanes and lane widths, geometric improvement and ramp metering on delays occurring in traffic leading to such major structures as bridges and tunnels.To reach the aim of the study, the collected field data were used to develop mathematical models to explain how traffic delay is related to the variables mentioned above. The study shwoed that the optimom speed is 65 km/hours. The aplayying of speed maagement by this speed value would resaulted in 18% decreasing in delays, for average speed was increased by 36% according to the current situation. İn addition, some of geometric improvements (like lane addition, decreasing of double queuing at On-Ramps to one before merging) were proposed. The analysis showed that geometric improvements were highly effective on network performance that resulted rising by %32 in average speed and reduction by 49% for delays. The impact of heavy vehicle percent and lane width on traffic delays were also studied. For lane width has negative effect on total delay while the heavy vehicle percent was positive. In addition the parameters that mentioned above, ramp metering and Automatic Pass System (APS) were tested. For ramp metering optimum cycle time were computed. Finally, the distance between on & off-ramps were tested by VİSSIM. The results identified that 600 meters in practice, the ideal is the 900 meters. The sixth chapter includes possible areas of the application of the obtained results and the suggested improvements for future studies. Keywords: Traffic Congestion, Delay, Speed Management, Simulation. 141

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    Authors: Zhongwen Gao; Ling Ding; Weiwei Song;
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    Authors: Muhammed, Bikis;

    The PeMS traffic datasets have been collected by the California Transportation (Caltrans) agency for 30-second granularity, and the raw and aggregated data are publicly available on their website (https://pems.dot.ca.gov/?dnode=Clearinghouse&type=meta&district_id=7&submit=Submit). We have gathered 5-minute aggregated vehicular traffic state (i.e traffic speed) dataset for district four and seven of California for 2022. We have used Bing Distance Matrix API to compute a driving distance between each sensor. The API can be used to compute a driving distance between a single source or multiple sources and source or multiple destinations at once. In addition, the weather datasets have been collected from https://www.visualcrossing.com/weather/weather-data-services and the datasets have one-hour granularity, and we have only removed some of the unnecessary columns.

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    Authors: Coifman, Benjamin;

    This paper presents microscopic time-space diagrams for several shock waves over 100-200m distances. The primary focus of the paper is on presenting the data rather than analysis. The diagrams should be of general interest to researchers studying traffic congestion.

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    Authors: Thulasi Bikku; V. Lakshman Narayana; Arepalli Peda Gopi; Sk. Reshmi Khadherbhi;