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  • Transport Research

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: SCHWEIZER, JOERG;

    Abstract This system allows safe, unidirectional distance measurement between two consecutive vehicles. In particular, each vehicle in a vehicle string can measure the distance to the vehicle in front. The distance measurement is possible, even if the vehicle string is spread across merge or diverge zones. In addition, each vehicle can demodulate an information signal that has been modulated by the vehicle in front. The vehicles are assumed to have current collectors through which they are permanently connected to two parallel way-side conductor bars. The safety feature of the proposed distance measurement system is that it can detect if at least one of the conductor bars is interrupted or if any current collector of the measuring vehicle is disconnected from the conductor bars.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Rongfang Liu; Daniel J. Fagnant; Wei-Bin Zhang;

    It is commonly accepted that Automated Transit will still be as relevant as it is now, if not more so, even when fully-automated vehicles become a reality. We need to develop a consensus on how vehicle automation will transform and perhaps disrupt the traditional transit systems, what new and different types of market-driven and publicly-run frameworks will emerge, and how we should invest our limited public resources. The two day session on Automated Transit and Shared Mobility Track (ATSM) during the 2015 Automated Vehicle Symposium (AVS) explored implications for the changing roles of transit and shared mobility as vehicle automation progresses. This chapter not only documents the main ideas presented during the symposium, but also supplements certain ideas with further discussions and clarifications after the conference.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Haley Jones;

    We consider personal rapid transit (PRT) as a sustainable transit system for Canberra. We discuss the advantages of PRT and show that is has all of the advantages and features of both car ownership and public transport, with added attractions of its own. The most appealing feature of PRT is its cost. Previous studies have shown PRT to be cheaper than most other public transport systems. We show that PRT would be remarkably cost effective for a city planned like Canberra, particularly if there were sufficient incentives to significantly cut car ownership, including enhancement of the current excellent bicycle network.

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  • Authors: E J Hinman; G L Pitts;

    Continued interest in Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems as one solution to urban traffic congestion emphasizes the need for careful consideration of the safety of short headway automated transit systems. Current approaches to the determination of safe headways are reviewed. The reduction in headway which could be achieved by improved braking and signaling hardware is outlined. Improved design of emergency brakes is the most important single factor in the reduction of safe headways. Very short headway systems are reviewed from a safety standpoint. Such systems might be safely operated if operation at intermediate headways (separations on the order of the stopping distance) can be avoided.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sossoe, Kwami,; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick;

    This paper provides a Lagrangian dynamic fluid model of the traffic of Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) system or of personal rapid maglev-transporters. The transport system using these maglev-transporters or sky-podcars operates in the style of demand-responsive systems. The advantage of the sky-podcars is that they are fast and that they do not operate in the same physical space as the other ground transportation modes. Thus they will contribute to alleviate congestion. We model the dynamics of the sky-podcars transportation system and we solve the problem of relocation with minimum cost in this maglev system. An analysis of assumptions of effective operation of the PRT is carried out. Reactive dynamic assignment in such PRT system is described. In a multi-modal transport system where the maglev-transporters mode is taken into account, we describe the multi-modal dynamic assignment and its spatial interactions with other common transportation systems.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL - UPEC / UPEM; H...arrow_drop_down
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    Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2015
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL - UPEC / UPEM; H...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      HAL - UPEC / UPEM; Hal-Diderot
      Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2015
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: J. Edward Anderson;

    The design of Personal Rapid Transit (PRT), has been driven by the need to find a way to relieve urban congestion while reducing or eliminating the need for transit subsidies, reducing air pollution, and minimizing dependence on oil. To find such a solution it has been necessary to set aside characteristics of conventional transit and without prejudice seek to discover transit-system characteristics that will fulfill the desired needs. The new system must be designed to minimize its costs while maximizing its ridership and meeting required levels of capacity, safety, reliability, security, and comfort with minimum energy use, minimum pollution, minimum land use, minimum material use, and minimum disruption during installation. It must be able to work with conventional transit systems and make them more effective. The aim of this paper is to show how the objectives of an optimized PRT design effort have been realized.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ingmar Andréasson;

    AbstractA survey of research and development in advanced transit has been made by Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg in cooperation with Trans21 in Boston. Summary findings are reported for fourteen academic research programs and ten development programs for PRT. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the International Conference of PRT and other Emerging Systems held in Minneapolis in 1996.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Advanced ...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of Advanced Transportation
    Article . 1998 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Advanced ...arrow_drop_down
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      Journal of Advanced Transportation
      Article . 1998 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Thomas H. Floyd;

    AbstractTrue Personal Rapid Transit (PRT), in concept and technology, is considerably advanced over PRT as proposed in the 1960s and 1970s. It is one of the few advanced transit concepts—perhaps the only one—that offers a prospect of overcoming the continued serious deficiencies of conventional transit systems. Past criticisms of PRT were often invalid, but even those questions that deserved to be taken seriously then no longer justify a postponement of serious PRT testing. Conventional transit, in spite of over two decades of considerable governmental support, is proving unable to satisfy major transportation needs of American urban areas, which are increasingly dispersed and multi‐centered. There is no indication that conventional transit can overcome sufficiently its performance and economic deficiencies. If PRT is not given a chance to be tested, local public officials will continue to be faced with too limited options as between auto‐dominated transportation services and high subsidies for inadequate transit solutions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Advanced ...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Advanced Transportation
    Article . 1987 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Advanced ...arrow_drop_down
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      Journal of Advanced Transportation
      Article . 1987 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: W. J. Holt; R. W. Corey;

    Las Vegas, Nevada is one of the ideal urban environments for a Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) System. The city operates on a "round the clock" basis and highway traffic congestion is becoming severe with the growth of tourism. The principal industry is tourism and a fare structure can be imposed which will made a PRT system self-supporting. A PRT system is described which meets the anticipated Las Vegas requirements of 24h/day operation, vehicle and service being designed to compete favorably with the automobile. The PRT system elements described include vehicle, guideway, control features, stations, and maintenance facility. The results of a maintenance plan analysis and financial considerations are also discussed.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Alexandra Lichtenberg; Patricia Guimarães; Heleen Podsedkowska;

    The objective of this research is to introduce a new perspective to sustainable mobility strategic planning for small European municipalities – a framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) – where back casting from a sustainable vision in the long-term future is central to the process. This vision portrays mobility in an efficient, safe and economic manner, where the use of private cars has been substituted by attractive and reliable integrated sustainable transportation modes. It is a holistic approach based on systems thinking, which provides a structure for organizing analysis and strategic planning in complex systems from the perspective of the mobility issue and the global socio-ecological system.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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54 Research products (1 rule applied)
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: SCHWEIZER, JOERG;

    Abstract This system allows safe, unidirectional distance measurement between two consecutive vehicles. In particular, each vehicle in a vehicle string can measure the distance to the vehicle in front. The distance measurement is possible, even if the vehicle string is spread across merge or diverge zones. In addition, each vehicle can demodulate an information signal that has been modulated by the vehicle in front. The vehicles are assumed to have current collectors through which they are permanently connected to two parallel way-side conductor bars. The safety feature of the proposed distance measurement system is that it can detect if at least one of the conductor bars is interrupted or if any current collector of the measuring vehicle is disconnected from the conductor bars.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio istituziona...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Rongfang Liu; Daniel J. Fagnant; Wei-Bin Zhang;

    It is commonly accepted that Automated Transit will still be as relevant as it is now, if not more so, even when fully-automated vehicles become a reality. We need to develop a consensus on how vehicle automation will transform and perhaps disrupt the traditional transit systems, what new and different types of market-driven and publicly-run frameworks will emerge, and how we should invest our limited public resources. The two day session on Automated Transit and Shared Mobility Track (ATSM) during the 2015 Automated Vehicle Symposium (AVS) explored implications for the changing roles of transit and shared mobility as vehicle automation progresses. This chapter not only documents the main ideas presented during the symposium, but also supplements certain ideas with further discussions and clarifications after the conference.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
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    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
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  • Authors: Haley Jones;

    We consider personal rapid transit (PRT) as a sustainable transit system for Canberra. We discuss the advantages of PRT and show that is has all of the advantages and features of both car ownership and public transport, with added attractions of its own. The most appealing feature of PRT is its cost. Previous studies have shown PRT to be cheaper than most other public transport systems. We show that PRT would be remarkably cost effective for a city planned like Canberra, particularly if there were sufficient incentives to significantly cut car ownership, including enhancement of the current excellent bicycle network.

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  • Authors: E J Hinman; G L Pitts;

    Continued interest in Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems as one solution to urban traffic congestion emphasizes the need for careful consideration of the safety of short headway automated transit systems. Current approaches to the determination of safe headways are reviewed. The reduction in headway which could be achieved by improved braking and signaling hardware is outlined. Improved design of emergency brakes is the most important single factor in the reduction of safe headways. Very short headway systems are reviewed from a safety standpoint. Such systems might be safely operated if operation at intermediate headways (separations on the order of the stopping distance) can be avoided.

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    Authors: Sossoe, Kwami,; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick;

    This paper provides a Lagrangian dynamic fluid model of the traffic of Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) system or of personal rapid maglev-transporters. The transport system using these maglev-transporters or sky-podcars operates in the style of demand-responsive systems. The advantage of the sky-podcars is that they are fast and that they do not operate in the same physical space as the other ground transportation modes. Thus they will contribute to alleviate congestion. We model the dynamics of the sky-podcars transportation system and we solve the problem of relocation with minimum cost in this maglev system. An analysis of assumptions of effective operation of the PRT is carried out. Reactive dynamic assignment in such PRT system is described. In a multi-modal transport system where the maglev-transporters mode is taken into account, we describe the multi-modal dynamic assignment and its spatial interactions with other common transportation systems.

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    Part of book or chapter of book . Conference object . 2015
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  • Authors: J. Edward Anderson;

    The design of Personal Rapid Transit (PRT), has been driven by the need to find a way to relieve urban congestion while reducing or eliminating the need for transit subsidies, reducing air pollution, and minimizing dependence on oil. To find such a solution it has been necessary to set aside characteristics of conventional transit and without prejudice seek to discover transit-system characteristics that will fulfill the desired needs. The new system must be designed to minimize its costs while maximizing its ridership and meeting required levels of capacity, safety, reliability, security, and comfort with minimum energy use, minimum pollution, minimum land use, minimum material use, and minimum disruption during installation. It must be able to work with conventional transit systems and make them more effective. The aim of this paper is to show how the objectives of an optimized PRT design effort have been realized.