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  • Authors: Thanopoulos, Antonis;
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    Authors: Fredriksson, Lars; Jonsson, Niklas;

    The automotive industry is today in a world of globalisation and external factors can influence the car companies and it is important that they progress with the people. When an external factor, as the oil price, increases dramatically, it will affect the economies in different matters. Other external factors are impacted by the oil price, for example inflation, unemployment and target rates. In addition, people are changing their preferences due to the attention of the environment. With this as the foundation the problem of the essay were divided into three aspects. First, are the automotive companies affected by an increasing oil price? Second, is a different green thinking in the markets of the companies affecting them? Third, do economic trends making an impact on the auto companies? The purpose of this essay is to investigate if the oil price, a new green way of thinking and if different economical factors have affected the car companies. To be able to accomplish the purpose, the ten largest automotive companies’ annual reports and Internet sites were used to gather information about monthly and annual sales numbers. Along with that, other necessary sources as pollution rates for different areas; inflation rates, unemployment rates and target rates were collected. Theories that were necessary for analyzing the empiric work were used. The analysis part of the essay consists mostly of correlation- and regression analysis, because they are the most appropriate tools in this context. Furthermore, the study is stating that the car companies are demonstrating tendencies to being negatively affected by an increasing in the oil price. Moreover, auto companies with more green cars have more sales on markets that have additional green thinking. Lastly, the study is also concluding that economical trends do not affect the companies in any special circumstances.

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    Authors: Brendel, Alfred Benedikt; Lichtenberg, Sascha; Morana, Stefan; Prinz, Christoph; +6 Authors

    Car-sharing services promise environmentally sustainable and cost-efficient alternatives to private car ownership, contributing to more environmentally sustainable mobility. However, the challenge of balancing vehicle supply and demand needs to be addressed for further improvement of the service. Currently, employees must relocate vehicles from low-demand to high-demand areas, which generates extra personnel costs, driven kilometers, and emissions. This study takes a Design Science Research (DSR) approach to develop a new way of balancing the supply and demand of vehicles in car-sharing, namely crowd-based relocation. We base our approach on crowdsourcing, a concept by which customers are requested to perform vehicle relocations. This paper reports on our comprehensive DSR project on designing and instantiating a crowd-based relocation information system (CRIS). We assessed the resulting artifact in a car-sharing simulation and conducted a real-world car-sharing service system field test. The evaluation reveals that CRIS has the potential for improving vehicle availability, increasing environmental sustainability, and reducing operational costs. Further, the prescriptive knowledge derived in our DSR project can be used as a starting point to improve individual parts of the CRIS and to extend its application beyond car-sharing into other sharing services, such as power bank- or e-scooter-sharing. Open-Access-Publikationsfonds 2022

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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.22028/d291-...
    Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
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      Sustainability
      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.22028/d291-...
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Tong-Bou Chang; Jer-Jia Sheu; Jhong-Wei Huang;

    leading to poor driver visibility and an impaired road safety. Accordingly, the present study proposes a novel high-efficiency heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system with both heating and defog/dehumidification functions for electric vehicles. The effectiveness of the proposed system is investigated experimentally using a simulated cabin placed in a temperature and humidity-controlled test chamber. The experimental results confirm that the HVAC system achieves the required cooling, heating and defog/dehumidification functions and meets the corresponding standards. Moreover, the application of HVAC in EVs could lead to significant electrical power saving effect. Electric vehicles (EVs) generally use an electric heating system to provide heat. However, the heating system consumes a large amount of energy, and therefore reduces the mileage of the vehicle. The energy consumption can be reduced by replacing the electric heating system with a heat pump air conditioning system. Such systems achieve an effective heating of the vehicle interior, but do not provide a defog or dehumidification function. Consequently, the inside surface of the windshield tends to fog in cold weather

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    Energies
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Energies
    Article . 2021
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    Energies
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      Energies
      Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Energies
      Article . 2021
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      Energies
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    Authors: Wei Zhou; Haixia Wang; Victor Shi; Xiding Chen;

    For green and sustainable supply chains, transportation resilience is a critical issue. Car Sharing is an effective way to improve transportation resilience. The emerging car-sharing industry continues to attract a lot of investment, but few companies in the industry are profitable. Indeed, numerical experiments based on dynamic models in this paper showed that it was challenging for a car-sharing company to be profitable. As the numerical experiments followed the fractional factorial designs, from the factor analysis, it is suggested that a new car-sharing business first study the external business environment. Even if the external environment is sound, the company still needs to pay attention to internal operations management. Moreover, when the company decides the number of cars it owns and the fleet size, it should consider factors including variable daily expenses, maintenance costs, salvage value, and commission.

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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Xingli Jia; Xuefang Qin; Jiyuan Zhu; Zhan Xiao; +1 Authors

    Low carbon road design has always been a research hotspot for scholars. One of the primary road variables affecting the carbon emission of automobiles is vertical curve, which serves as the primary geometric alignment of the longitudinal portion of the road. The instantaneous speed and acceleration data of cars on various vertical curve sections are gathered for this study by combining simulation and real vehicle experiment methods. This study then built a database of carbon emissions for cars on various vertical curve sections based on the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model, used Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) to analyze the data, and developed a carbon emission model for cars on various vertical curve sections. Finally, it was found that the average error of the carbon emission model for different vertical curve sections was 8.37%, and the accuracy of carbon emission modelling could meet the requirements. The results show that the main influencing factor of carbon emission of cars on vertical curve sections is the radius of vertical curve, and the carbon emission of cars is inversely proportional to the radius of vertical curve. The smaller the value of vertical curve radius is, the more the engine output increases and the greater the carbon emission level will be. This research will provide reference and theoretical support for low-carbon design of highway longitudinal slope sections.

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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Silvia Puiu; Mihaela Tinca Udriștioiu; Liliana Velea;

    The present research aims to understand how air pollution can be managed by public authorities, both central and local, starting from citizens’ perspectives on the issue. Air quality is a real problem, affecting people at multiple levels. Thus, we introduced the following variables to better understand the problem and to be able to formulate theoretical and practical implications for public management: the involvement of authorities in reducing air pollution; the involvement of citizens in reducing air pollution; financial incentives for citizens and companies for adopting behaviors that reduce air pollution; green investments in the city; the impact of air pollution on the community; and the need for independent bodies to monitor air pollution. The research methodology used is partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) and the required data were gathered from issuing a survey to citizens from the most important cities in Romania where pollution poses important challenges for the community and for the authorities. The results are useful to public managers in local and central institutions for creating better strategies meant to reduce air pollution, increase air quality, and improve the quality of the citizens’ lives.

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    Problem. Development and implementation of green technologies is both an urgent and a cost-effective scientific and engineering task. Therefore, the issues related to the study of renewable energy sources, which are used as the main sources of energy for electric vehicles, are quite relevant and promising. At the same time, an equally important question is how profitable is building solar charging stations in terms of both ecology and economy. Goal. The aim is calculation and analysis of technical and economic indicators of a solar charging station for electric vehicles (EV). Methodology. The analytical methods of studying the development and application of the ways and devices to transform the energy of the sun into electricity are used, as well as the methods of experimental research and mathematical methods of processing and modulation of the received results; methods of calculating technical and economic indicators. Results. The review of the literature on the development of renewable energy sources, in particular, solar power plants, and the spread of electric vehicles with the gradual displacement (replacement) of traditional cars working on internal combustion engines with electric vehicles (BEV and PHEV) was made. The main parameters and technical characteristics of the solar-powered charging station (SPCS) were studied. For the analysis and calculation of technical and economic indicators of SPCS for EV it is offered to take a SPP with a capacity of 20 kW as a basis. The calculation of SPCS electricity generation both for own consumption and for power supply of EV and the sale of surplus electricity to the general network at the “green tariff” was carried out. Originality. The technical and economic calculation of SCS was made taking into account the rise of electricity prices in Kharkiv region (Ukraine). Practical value. According to the analysis of the obtained results, it can be said that the payback period of SPCS for EV is about 7.9 years. If we consider the constant increase in the cost of electricity (approximately 15% per year), we can expect the payback after 6.8 years of operation. Проблема. Розробка та впровадження зелених технологій є не тільки актуальною, а й економічно вигідною науковою та інженерною задачею. Тому питання пов’язані з дослідженням роботи поновлювальних джерел енергії, які використовуються як основні джерела енергії для електротранспорту є достатньо актуальними та перспективними. Разом з цим, не менш актуальним питанням є наскільки вигідно не лише з екологічної точки зору, а й з економічної розбудовувати сонячні зарядні станції? Мета. Розрахунок та аналіз техніко-економічних показників сонячної зарядної станції для електромобілів (EV). Методологія. Використані аналітичні методи дослідження з розробки та застосування методів та пристроїв для перетворення енергії сонця на електричну. Використано методи експериментальних досліджень та математичні методи обробки та модулювання отриманих результатів. Методи розрахунку техніко-економічних показників. Результати. Проведено огляд літературних джерел щодо розвитку поновлювальних джерел енергії, зокрема, сонячних електростанцій, та поширенню електромобілів з поступовим витісненням (заміною) традиційних автомобілів з ДВЗ електромобілями (BEV and PHEV). Проведено дослідження основних параметрів та технічних характеристики сонячної зарядної станції (СЗС). Для проведення аналізу та розрахунку техніко-економічних показників СЗС для EV запропоновано взяти за основу СЕС потужністю 20 кВт. Проведено розрахунок генерації електроенергії СЗС як для власного споживання, так і для живлення EV та продажу надлишку електроенергії у загальну мережу за «зеленим тарифом». Оригінальність. Проведено техніко-економічний розрахунок СЗС з урахуванням подорожчання електроенергії на території Харківської області (Україна). Практичне значення. За аналізом отриманих результатів можна зазначити, що термін окупності СЗС для EV складає близько 7,9 років. Якщо врахувати постійне зростання вартості електроенергії (приблизно на 15 % в рік), то можна очікувати, що окупність настане на 6,8 році її експлуатації.

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    Authors: Gobczyński, Karol; Leroux, Maxime;

    The aim of this research is the analysis of socio-economic factors that wouldinfluence consumer buying process of electric vehicles in Iceland. The purpose of the researchis to detect the most crucial factors influencing Icelanders decisions for and againstpurchasing an electric vehicle, instead of car with internal combustion engine. This researchverified people‟s opinions and can bring companies closer to real mindsets of Icelandicpotential buyers. Moreover, this paper might give a possibility to eliminate wrong thinkingand barriers by better adjusted marketing. Additionally, analyzed advantages might showwhat the main reason of shifting to this alternative technology is. Moreover, it shows whatmight be the customer acceptance price range.

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    Authors: Anton Obermaier;

    The increasing use of computers to replace relay systems has resulted in greater traffic-control flexibility and higher efficiency.

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    IEEE Spectrum
    Article . 1977 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Thanopoulos, Antonis;
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    Authors: Fredriksson, Lars; Jonsson, Niklas;

    The automotive industry is today in a world of globalisation and external factors can influence the car companies and it is important that they progress with the people. When an external factor, as the oil price, increases dramatically, it will affect the economies in different matters. Other external factors are impacted by the oil price, for example inflation, unemployment and target rates. In addition, people are changing their preferences due to the attention of the environment. With this as the foundation the problem of the essay were divided into three aspects. First, are the automotive companies affected by an increasing oil price? Second, is a different green thinking in the markets of the companies affecting them? Third, do economic trends making an impact on the auto companies? The purpose of this essay is to investigate if the oil price, a new green way of thinking and if different economical factors have affected the car companies. To be able to accomplish the purpose, the ten largest automotive companies’ annual reports and Internet sites were used to gather information about monthly and annual sales numbers. Along with that, other necessary sources as pollution rates for different areas; inflation rates, unemployment rates and target rates were collected. Theories that were necessary for analyzing the empiric work were used. The analysis part of the essay consists mostly of correlation- and regression analysis, because they are the most appropriate tools in this context. Furthermore, the study is stating that the car companies are demonstrating tendencies to being negatively affected by an increasing in the oil price. Moreover, auto companies with more green cars have more sales on markets that have additional green thinking. Lastly, the study is also concluding that economical trends do not affect the companies in any special circumstances.

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    Authors: Brendel, Alfred Benedikt; Lichtenberg, Sascha; Morana, Stefan; Prinz, Christoph; +6 Authors

    Car-sharing services promise environmentally sustainable and cost-efficient alternatives to private car ownership, contributing to more environmentally sustainable mobility. However, the challenge of balancing vehicle supply and demand needs to be addressed for further improvement of the service. Currently, employees must relocate vehicles from low-demand to high-demand areas, which generates extra personnel costs, driven kilometers, and emissions. This study takes a Design Science Research (DSR) approach to develop a new way of balancing the supply and demand of vehicles in car-sharing, namely crowd-based relocation. We base our approach on crowdsourcing, a concept by which customers are requested to perform vehicle relocations. This paper reports on our comprehensive DSR project on designing and instantiating a crowd-based relocation information system (CRIS). We assessed the resulting artifact in a car-sharing simulation and conducted a real-world car-sharing service system field test. The evaluation reveals that CRIS has the potential for improving vehicle availability, increasing environmental sustainability, and reducing operational costs. Further, the prescriptive knowledge derived in our DSR project can be used as a starting point to improve individual parts of the CRIS and to extend its application beyond car-sharing into other sharing services, such as power bank- or e-scooter-sharing. Open-Access-Publikationsfonds 2022

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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.22028/d291-...
    Article . 2022
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      Sustainability
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      https://doi.org/10.22028/d291-...
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Tong-Bou Chang; Jer-Jia Sheu; Jhong-Wei Huang;

    leading to poor driver visibility and an impaired road safety. Accordingly, the present study proposes a novel high-efficiency heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system with both heating and defog/dehumidification functions for electric vehicles. The effectiveness of the proposed system is investigated experimentally using a simulated cabin placed in a temperature and humidity-controlled test chamber. The experimental results confirm that the HVAC system achieves the required cooling, heating and defog/dehumidification functions and meets the corresponding standards. Moreover, the application of HVAC in EVs could lead to significant electrical power saving effect. Electric vehicles (EVs) generally use an electric heating system to provide heat. However, the heating system consumes a large amount of energy, and therefore reduces the mileage of the vehicle. The energy consumption can be reduced by replacing the electric heating system with a heat pump air conditioning system. Such systems achieve an effective heating of the vehicle interior, but do not provide a defog or dehumidification function. Consequently, the inside surface of the windshield tends to fog in cold weather

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    Energies
    Other literature type . Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Energies
    Article . 2021
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      Energies
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      Energies
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    Authors: Wei Zhou; Haixia Wang; Victor Shi; Xiding Chen;

    For green and sustainable supply chains, transportation resilience is a critical issue. Car Sharing is an effective way to improve transportation resilience. The emerging car-sharing industry continues to attract a lot of investment, but few companies in the industry are profitable. Indeed, numerical experiments based on dynamic models in this paper showed that it was challenging for a car-sharing company to be profitable. As the numerical experiments followed the fractional factorial designs, from the factor analysis, it is suggested that a new car-sharing business first study the external business environment. Even if the external environment is sound, the company still needs to pay attention to internal operations management. Moreover, when the company decides the number of cars it owns and the fleet size, it should consider factors including variable daily expenses, maintenance costs, salvage value, and commission.

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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Sustainabilityarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Sustainability
      Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Xingli Jia; Xuefang Qin; Jiyuan Zhu; Zhan Xiao; +1 Authors

    Low carbon road design has always been a research hotspot for scholars. One of the primary road variables affecting the carbon emission of automobiles is vertical curve, which serves as the primary geometric alignment of the longitudinal portion of the road. The instantaneous speed and acceleration data of cars on various vertical curve sections are gathered for this study by combining simulation and real vehicle experiment methods. This study then built a database of carbon emissions for cars on various vertical curve sections based on the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model, used Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) to analyze the data, and developed a carbon emission model for cars on various vertical curve sections. Finally, it was found that the average error of the carbon emission model for different vertical curve sections was 8.37%, and the accuracy of carbon emission modelling could meet the requirements. The results show that the main influencing factor of carbon emission of cars on vertical curve sections is the radius of vertical curve, and the carbon emission of cars is inversely proportional to the radius of vertical curve. The smaller the value of vertical curve radius is, the more the engine output increases and the greater the carbon emission level will be. This research will provide reference and theoretical support for low-carbon design of highway longitudinal slope sections.

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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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