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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mugtussids, Iossif B.;

    Modern aircraft are capable of recording hundreds of parameters during flight. This fact not only facilitates the investigation of an accident or a serious incident, but also provides the opportunity to use the recorded data to predict future aircraft behavior. It is believed that, by analyzing the recorded data, one can identify precursors to hazardous behavior and develop procedures to mitigate the problems before they actually occur. Because of the enormous amount of data collected during each flight, it becomes necessary to identify the segments of data that contain useful information. The objective is to distinguish between typical data points, that are present in the majority of flights, and unusual data points that can be only found in a few flights. The distinction between typical and unusual data points is achieved by using classification procedures. In this dissertation, the application of classification procedures to flight data is investigated. It is proposed to use a Bayesian classifier that tries to identify the flight from which a particular data point came. If the flight from which the data point came is identified with a high level of confidence, then the conclusion that the data point is unusual within the investigated flights can be made. The Bayesian classifier uses the overall and conditional probability density functions together with a priori probabilities to make a decision. Estimating probability density functions is a difficult task in multiple dimensions. Because many of the recorded signals (features) are redundant or highly correlated or are very similar in every flight, feature selection techniques are applied to identify those signals that contain the most discriminatory power. In the limited amount of data available to this research, twenty five features were identified as the set exhibiting the best discriminatory power. Additionally, the number of signals is reduced by applying feature generation techniques to similar signals. To make the approach applicable in practice, when many flights are considered, a very efficient and fast sequential data clustering algorithm is proposed. The order in which the samples are presented to the algorithm is fixed according to the probability density function value. Accuracy and reduction level are controlled using two scalar parameters: a distance threshold value and a maximum compactness factor. Ph. D.

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  • Authors: Joseph Post; James Bonn; Sherry Borener; Douglas Baart; +2 Authors

    This paper presents the results of a validation of three fast-time air traffic control models currently being used to support decisionmaking at the Federal Aviation Administration and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The models exercised in this validation were LMINET, the Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES), and the National Airspace System Performance Analysis Capability (NASPAC). The three models were used to simulate the same historical day (with good weather and fairly heavy traffic). Actual flight data was used to generate the flight schedule inputs for LMINET and ACES, while the Official Airline Guide and statistical data were used for NASPAC. Due to limitations inherent in the models and the way they are run, somewhat different airport networks and fleets were simulated by each model, yielding different flight counts. The validation first compares the number of flights simulated by each model with the historical record. A number of delay metrics are then computed for each model and compared with delay data from the Aviation System Performance Metrics database.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ortuño Baeza, María Elena;

    [ES] A lo largo del grado se trabajan, principalmente de manera teórica, los conocimientos imprescindibles para poder ejercer en un futuro la profesión de Ingeniero Técnico Aeronáutico. Los estudios teóricos realizados en las distintas asignaturas cursadas requieren, en ocasiones, la realización de simplificaciones que transforman un arduo problema en una tarea más sencilla de resolver en el ámbito académico. Este hecho conlleva como inconveniente que las simplificaciones asumidas, de manera ocasional, no tienen cabida en los problemas de la vida real. Es por ello por lo que aplicarlos en situaciones reales, que suponen una mayor dificultad, puede originar importantes errores en los resultados, mermando así la validez y fiabilidad de los mismos. La realización del presente trabajo de fin de grado tiene por objeto comprobar la aplicabilidad y fiabilidad de ciertos conocimientos básicos adquiridos en las asignaturas 11889_Mecánica de Vuelo y 11901_Ampliación de Mecánica de Vuelo. Esto se llevará a cabo a través del estudio del incidente sufrido por el vuelo 1549, el 15 de enero de 2009, mundialmente conocido como el amerizaje en el río Hudson. En este se analizarán los aspectos más importantes del modelo matemático de la aeronave siniestrada, junto a su dinámica, con el fin de tratar de simular el comportamiento de la misma durante el incidente. Finalmente, se ampliarán los conocimientos básicos adquiridos en las asignaturas previamente mencionadas, al realizar el estudio del incidente aplicando una mecánica de vuelo más compleja y exhaustiva. [EN] Throughout the degree, the essential knowledge an Aeronautical Technical Engineer must dominate is teach, mostly theoretically. The theoretical studies carried out in the different subjects sometimes require simplifications to transform a difficult problem into a simpler task to solve in the academic field. This fact entails the inconvenience that the simplifications assumed, occasionally, have no place in real-life problems. That is why applying them in real situations, which are more difficult, could cause significant errors in the results, reducing in this way their validity and reliability. The purpose of this end-of-degree project is to verify the applicability and reliability of certain basic knowledge acquired in the subjects 11889_Flight Mechanics and 11901_Flight Mechanics Extension. This will be carried out through the study of the incident suffered by flight 1549, on January 15, 2009, that is known worldwide as the ditching on the Hudson River. The most important aspects of the mathematical model of the damaged aircraft, along with its dynamics, will be analysed in order to simulate its behaviour during the incident. Finally, the basic knowledge acquired in the previously mentioned subjects will be extended by carrying out the study of the incident by applying a more complex and exhaustive flight mechanics.

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  • Authors: Xinmin Tang; Junwei Gu; Zhiyuan Shen; Ping Chen;

    □ A method of extracting the nominal flight profile based on AMDAR data is proposed, including nominal flight altitude profile extracting by DSW distance algorithm and nominal airspeed profile extracting by CAS/TAS conversion model. The extracted profile contains flight and air traffic control intentions. □ An airway meteorological forecasts revising model is built, in which the meteorological observations acquired by reference aircraft can be used to revise those meteorological forecasts related to object aircraft according by Cressman interpolation. The model can improve the improve the accuracy for 4D trajectory estimation. □ Future work shall use multiple data fusion such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) data and Quick Access Recorder (QAR) to overcome the defect of AMDAR in time and space limitations.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Robert KONIECZKA;

    This article attempts to provide a synthesis of basic directions indispensable to accurately collecting evidence after an aviation accident. The proper collection procedure ensures the avoidance of the loss of evidence critical for an investigation carried out by law enforcement agencies and/or the criminal justice system, which includes the participation of aviation expert investigators. Proper and complete evidence is also used to define the cause of the accident in the proceedings conducted by Państwowa Komisja Badania Wypadków Lotniczych (State Committee for Aviation Incidents Investigation, The State Committee for Aviation Incidents Investigation, hereafter referred to as the PKBWL). The methodology of securing evidence refers to the evidence collected at the scene of an accident right after its occurrence, and also to the evidence collected at other sites. It also includes, within its scope, additional materials that are essential to furthering the investigation process, although their collection does not require any urgent action. Furthermore, the article explains the meaning of particular pieces of evidence and their possible relevance to the investigation process.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Koudis, GS; Hu, SJ; North, RJ; Majumdar, A; +1 Authors

    Abstract Reduced thrust takeoff has the potential to reduce aircraft-related NO X emissions at airports, however this remains to be investigated using flight data. This paper analyses the effect of takeoff roll thrust setting variability on the magnitude and spatial distribution of NO X emissions using high-resolution data records for 497 Airbus A319 activities at London Heathrow. Thrust setting varies between 67 and 97% of maximum, and aircraft operating in the bottom 10th percentile emit on average 514 g less NO X per takeoff roll (32% reduction) than the top 10th percentile, however this is dependent on takeoff roll duration. Spatial analysis suggests that peak NO X emissions, corresponding to the start of the takeoff roll, can be reduced by up to 25% by adopting reduced thrust takeoff activities. Furthermore, the length of the emission source also decreases. Consequently, the use of reduced thrust takeoff may enable improved local air quality at airports.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Spiral - Imperial Co...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Air Transport Management
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Spiral - Imperial Co...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Air Transport Management
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Krzysztof OGONOWSKI; Jarosław KOZUBA;

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to the recording of flight data in order to provide objective information concerning routine and emergency in-flight situations. The data recorded can be used for assessing the air mission execution by the pilot and flight safety breaches, for specifying some damage to the equipment, and for preventing faulty equipment from being used in flights. Flight data recorders (FDRs) are commonly known as “black boxes”. This article presents issues related to flight data acquisition and preparing the data for later use, as well as their impact on flight safety. The systems recording and processing selected parameters not only enable ongoing diagnostics, but also make it possible to predict the period of further reliable operations and to analyse the causes that led to possible damage. In addition to improving economic indicators of the aircraft operation, flight safety is improved. Obviously, the article will only discuss certain ways of enhancing safety by applying the processing of data obtained from FDRs. Nevertheless, I believe it will offer an overall view of how important it is to collect, process and properly analyse such data for diagnostics, prediction and flight safety.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lisha Ye; Li Cao; Xuhui Wang;

    Fuel savings are a significant aspect for evaluating the current and future technologies of civil aviation. Continuous-Descent Approach (CDA), as a representative of new concepts, requires a method for evaluating its fuel benefits. However, because of unavailability of the practical operational data, it is difficult to validate whether the previous fuel consumption mechanisms are suitable. This paper presents a unique method for quantifying potential fuel benefits. This permits an easy evaluation for the new procedures without modelling before implementing field tests. The proposed method is detailed in this paper. It derives from the inherent mechanical characteristic of aircraft engine, and utilizes historical flight data, rather than modelling, to predict fuel flow rates by matching flight conditions from Quick Access Recorder (QAR) data. The result has been shown to predict fuel consumption for conventional descent with the deviation of ±0.73%. To validate such method, a case study for our designed CDA procedure is presented. Fuel consumptions in baseline scenarios are estimated to analyse the variable impacts on fuel consumption. The estimated fuel benefits are consistent with the results in the previous field tests. This analysis helps support Air Traffic Management decisions on eventual field test by reducing the validation time and cost.

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    Article
    License: CC BY
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    Promet (Zagreb)
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Wojciech REDO;

    This article highlights the specifics of on-board recorders among the various systems found on aircraft. Attention is drawn to the legal and technical compliance requirements concerning modern on-board recorders. Reference is also made to certain aspects of recording methods and data security. Furthermore, the paper especially focuses on the process of measuring a parameter, indicating the basic criteria regarding the accuracy of the measurement. In addition, the role of two essential elements in the measuring chain is discussed: the feeder as a parameter measurer and the transformation system, i.e., AC converter.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mugtussids, Iossif B.;

    Modern aircraft are capable of recording hundreds of parameters during flight. This fact not only facilitates the investigation of an accident or a serious incident, but also provides the opportunity to use the recorded data to predict future aircraft behavior. It is believed that, by analyzing the recorded data, one can identify precursors to hazardous behavior and develop procedures to mitigate the problems before they actually occur. Because of the enormous amount of data collected during each flight, it becomes necessary to identify the segments of data that contain useful information. The objective is to distinguish between typical data points, that are present in the majority of flights, and unusual data points that can be only found in a few flights. The distinction between typical and unusual data points is achieved by using classification procedures. In this dissertation, the application of classification procedures to flight data is investigated. It is proposed to use a Bayesian classifier that tries to identify the flight from which a particular data point came. If the flight from which the data point came is identified with a high level of confidence, then the conclusion that the data point is unusual within the investigated flights can be made. The Bayesian classifier uses the overall and conditional probability density functions together with a priori probabilities to make a decision. Estimating probability density functions is a difficult task in multiple dimensions. Because many of the recorded signals (features) are redundant or highly correlated or are very similar in every flight, feature selection techniques are applied to identify those signals that contain the most discriminatory power. In the limited amount of data available to this research, twenty five features were identified as the set exhibiting the best discriminatory power. Additionally, the number of signals is reduced by applying feature generation techniques to similar signals. To make the approach applicable in practice, when many flights are considered, a very efficient and fast sequential data clustering algorithm is proposed. The order in which the samples are presented to the algorithm is fixed according to the probability density function value. Accuracy and reduction level are controlled using two scalar parameters: a distance threshold value and a maximum compactness factor. Ph. D.

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  • Authors: Joseph Post; James Bonn; Sherry Borener; Douglas Baart; +2 Authors

    This paper presents the results of a validation of three fast-time air traffic control models currently being used to support decisionmaking at the Federal Aviation Administration and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The models exercised in this validation were LMINET, the Airspace Concepts Evaluation System (ACES), and the National Airspace System Performance Analysis Capability (NASPAC). The three models were used to simulate the same historical day (with good weather and fairly heavy traffic). Actual flight data was used to generate the flight schedule inputs for LMINET and ACES, while the Official Airline Guide and statistical data were used for NASPAC. Due to limitations inherent in the models and the way they are run, somewhat different airport networks and fleets were simulated by each model, yielding different flight counts. The validation first compares the number of flights simulated by each model with the historical record. A number of delay metrics are then computed for each model and compared with delay data from the Aviation System Performance Metrics database.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ortuño Baeza, María Elena;

    [ES] A lo largo del grado se trabajan, principalmente de manera teórica, los conocimientos imprescindibles para poder ejercer en un futuro la profesión de Ingeniero Técnico Aeronáutico. Los estudios teóricos realizados en las distintas asignaturas cursadas requieren, en ocasiones, la realización de simplificaciones que transforman un arduo problema en una tarea más sencilla de resolver en el ámbito académico. Este hecho conlleva como inconveniente que las simplificaciones asumidas, de manera ocasional, no tienen cabida en los problemas de la vida real. Es por ello por lo que aplicarlos en situaciones reales, que suponen una mayor dificultad, puede originar importantes errores en los resultados, mermando así la validez y fiabilidad de los mismos. La realización del presente trabajo de fin de grado tiene por objeto comprobar la aplicabilidad y fiabilidad de ciertos conocimientos básicos adquiridos en las asignaturas 11889_Mecánica de Vuelo y 11901_Ampliación de Mecánica de Vuelo. Esto se llevará a cabo a través del estudio del incidente sufrido por el vuelo 1549, el 15 de enero de 2009, mundialmente conocido como el amerizaje en el río Hudson. En este se analizarán los aspectos más importantes del modelo matemático de la aeronave siniestrada, junto a su dinámica, con el fin de tratar de simular el comportamiento de la misma durante el incidente. Finalmente, se ampliarán los conocimientos básicos adquiridos en las asignaturas previamente mencionadas, al realizar el estudio del incidente aplicando una mecánica de vuelo más compleja y exhaustiva. [EN] Throughout the degree, the essential knowledge an Aeronautical Technical Engineer must dominate is teach, mostly theoretically. The theoretical studies carried out in the different subjects sometimes require simplifications to transform a difficult problem into a simpler task to solve in the academic field. This fact entails the inconvenience that the simplifications assumed, occasionally, have no place in real-life problems. That is why applying them in real situations, which are more difficult, could cause significant errors in the results, reducing in this way their validity and reliability. The purpose of this end-of-degree project is to verify the applicability and reliability of certain basic knowledge acquired in the subjects 11889_Flight Mechanics and 11901_Flight Mechanics Extension. This will be carried out through the study of the incident suffered by flight 1549, on January 15, 2009, that is known worldwide as the ditching on the Hudson River. The most important aspects of the mathematical model of the damaged aircraft, along with its dynamics, will be analysed in order to simulate its behaviour during the incident. Finally, the basic knowledge acquired in the previously mentioned subjects will be extended by carrying out the study of the incident by applying a more complex and exhaustive flight mechanics.

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  • Authors: Xinmin Tang; Junwei Gu; Zhiyuan Shen; Ping Chen;

    □ A method of extracting the nominal flight profile based on AMDAR data is proposed, including nominal flight altitude profile extracting by DSW distance algorithm and nominal airspeed profile extracting by CAS/TAS conversion model. The extracted profile contains flight and air traffic control intentions. □ An airway meteorological forecasts revising model is built, in which the meteorological observations acquired by reference aircraft can be used to revise those meteorological forecasts related to object aircraft according by Cressman interpolation. The model can improve the improve the accuracy for 4D trajectory estimation. □ Future work shall use multiple data fusion such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) data and Quick Access Recorder (QAR) to overcome the defect of AMDAR in time and space limitations.

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