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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: World Bank;

    According to a report by the World Bank published in April 2018, air pollution in Tehran incurs annual loss of billions of dollars and over 4,000 premature deaths from exposure to fine particles ambient concentrations. Particulate matter (PM), one of the primary pollutants from diesel exhaust, is associated with many different types of respiratory and cardiovascular effects, and premature mortality. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing city diesel bus fleet in Tehran with best available Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) available in the market. The report provides an updated assessment on the diesel retrofit solutions for an ageing diesel city bus fleet in Tehran based on publicly available information. The economic benefits of DPF installed in buses are evaluated with standard techniques of environmental economics, and technological assumptions about how much PM emissions can be avoided and control costs. The report highlights a number of national, regional and local examples of effective emission control program that exhibit best practices from around the world. Also, it presents important features and global experiences of successful retrofit program on heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs), including benefit-cost analysis from several case studies to help Tehran city leadership in taking informed economic and policy decisions. Finally, it recommends a set of critical actions to the government both at the national and local level for implementation of an effective emission control programs.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Open Knowledge Repos...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Open Knowledge Repository
    Report . 2019
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Open Knowledge Repos...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Open Knowledge Repository
      Report . 2019
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Radosavljević Dušan M.; Manojlović Aleksandar V.; Medar Olivera M.; Bojović Nebojša J.;

    This paper presents the research on vehicle fleet energy efficiency impact upon overall vehicle effectiveness. Transport companies and companies with own vehicle fleets tend to enhance their resource effectiveness, and to increase their transport service quality with the objective of attaining a competitive position on the market. Since energy consumed for transport operations is an important transport process resource, a method for assessing transport process effectiveness has been developed with the objective of increasing vehicle fleet effectiveness and its energy efficiency, and the overall vehicle effectiveness human indicator has been defined accordingly. The developed method was then implemented in an actual vehicle fleet and variations of the overall vehicle effectiveness human indicator were researched, as well as specific energy consumptions for respective net transport volumes depending on the following indicators: vehicle payload capacity utilization rate and mileage utilization rate. It is shown that specific energy consumption influences overall vehicle effectiveness depending on both the payload capacity utilization rate and mileage utilization rate. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 36010: Development of the Model for Managing the Vehicle Technical Condition in Order to Increase its Energy Efficiency and Reduce Exhaust Emissions]

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Thermal Sciencearrow_drop_down
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    Thermal Science
    Article
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Thermal Science
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Thermal Science
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Thermal Sciencearrow_drop_down
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      Thermal Science
      Article
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      Thermal Science
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Thermal Science
      Article . 2018
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Wanru Chen; Dezhi Zhang; Tom Van Woensel; Guangming Xu; +1 Authors

    Introducing clean energy into urban cold chain distribution to achieve a green transition is crucial for reducing transportation and logistics emissions and promoting sustainable urban development. This study focuses on the Cold Chain Green Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Mixed Fleets (CC-GMD-VRPTW-MF) for city logistics distribution, utilizing both electric vehicles (EVs) and gasoline and diesel vehicles (GDVs). To accurately assess energy consumption, a realistic energy consumption model is employed. The CC-GMD-VRPTW-MF aims to minimize total costs (including fixed, energy consumption, damage, and environmental costs). To address the problem, we propose an improved Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) algorithm that introduces a new balanced mechanism for perturbation and a new memory-based mechanism for local search to enhance computational performance. Numerical studies on newly designed CC-GMD-VRPTW-MF instances are conducted to investigate the effect of incorporating EVs for joint delivery, considering different carbon prices, and adjusting time windows. Furthermore, we evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed improvement strategies in VNS and demonstrate the algorithm’s performance on benchmarks of related problems.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Expert Systems with ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Expert Systems with Applications
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Expert Systems with ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Expert Systems with Applications
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Parisa Ahani; Amílcar Arantes; Rohollah Garmanjani; Sandra Melo;

    Publisher Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Since the 1990s, studies and pilot tests have been conducted to reduce traffic, accidents, and pollution due to urban freight transport (UFT). These ended up in several policies, regulations, and restrictions for UFT, such as low emission zones, delivery time windows, and vehicle size and weight restrictions. However, issues in UFT under regulatory measures still persist. This study introduces an optimization framework for deriving an optimal combination of various types of vehicles with different capacities for vehicle replacement with UFT. This framework allows an understanding of how an urban freight company with a limited budget efficiently satisfies its freight demand within an urban area in the presence of regulatory measures by urban administrators. The introduced formulation, which is mixed-integer linear programming, will assist the operator in choosing the best investment strategy for introducing new vehicles of certain types and sizes, for operation in different zones, into its fleet while gaining economic benefits and having a positive impact on the liveability of the urban area. Furthermore, an elasticity analysis is performed to consider the effects of specific uncertain parameters on the total cost. The numerical results show that the share of electric vehicles in the fleet increases, and they are more competitive than diesel vehicles. publishersversion published

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Sustainabilityarrow_drop_down
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    Sustainability
    Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
    Preprint . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Sustainabilityarrow_drop_down
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      Sustainability
      Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
      Preprint . 2023
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Junjie Hu; Hugo Morais; Tiago Sousa; Morten Lind;

    Abstract Electric vehicles can become integral parts of a smart grid, since they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems other than just consuming power. On the transmission system level, electric vehicles are regarded as an important means of balancing the intermittent renewable energy resources such as wind power. This is because electric vehicles can be used to absorb the energy during the period of high electricity penetration and feed the electricity back into the grid when the demand is high or in situations of insufficient electricity generation. However, on the distribution system level, the extra loads created by the increasing number of electric vehicles may have adverse impacts on grid. These factors bring new challenges to the power system operators. To coordinate the interests and solve the conflicts, electric vehicle fleet operators are proposed both by academics and industries. This paper presents a review and classification of methods for smart charging (including power to vehicle and vehicle-to-grid) of electric vehicles for fleet operators. The study firstly presents service relationships between fleet operators and other four actors in smart grids; then, modeling of battery dynamics and driving patterns of electric vehicles, charging and communications standards are introduced; after that, three control strategies and their commonly used algorithms are described; finally, conclusion and recommendations are made.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Online Research Data...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gordon Bauer; Cheng Zheng; Susan Shaheen; Daniel M. Kammen;

    Taxis provide an important market for electric vehicles (EVs), but long charging durations and limited charger availability have prevented rapid adoption. Leveraging over two weeks of high-resolution GPS and battery data from almost 20,000 EVs in the all-electric Shenzhen taxi fleet, we analyze the potential to improve fleet-wide operations by optimizing both the location and timing of vehicle charging. We construct machine learning models to predict travel time, queuing time at charging stations, and charge consumption by time of day. Contrary to the emphasis on charging station siting in the literature, we find that optimizing charging locations would have a relatively limited impact. Instead, providing drivers with better real-time information about queuing times at charging stations, and enabling flexibility in battery charge during shift changes could reduce down-time per vehicle by over 30 minutes per day, while increasing the number of economically viable charging stations by over 50%. Moreover, taking full advantage of break periods and nighttime to charge could reduce downtime per vehicle by over one hour per day, reducing revenue losses due to charging by roughly 90%. These results are verified with evidence from real-time charging station data and driver shift-change data. Policy recommendations from this study include establishing citywide open data platforms to integrate real-time data on vehicle trajectory, battery charge, and charger availability, and providing drivers and companies with training on best charging practices. As a number of cities worldwide move toward fully electrified taxi fleets, this analysis has large-scale implications for decarbonized, cleaner urban areas.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: IEEE Copyright
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Koç, Çağri; Bektaş, Tolga; Jabali, Ola; Laporte, Gilbert;

    This paper introduces the fleet size and mix pollution-routing problem which extends the pollution-routing problem by considering a heterogeneous vehicle fleet. The main objective is to minimize the sum of vehicle fixed costs and routing cost, where the latter can be defined with respect to the cost of fuel and CO emissions, and driver cost. Solving this problem poses several methodological challenges. To this end, we have developed a powerful metaheuristic which was successfully applied to a large pool of realistic benchmark instances. Several analyses were conducted to shed light on the trade-offs between various performance indicators, including capacity utilization, fuel and emissions and costs pertaining to vehicle acquisition, fuel consumption and drivers. The analyses also quantify the benefits of using a heterogeneous fleet over a homogeneous one. Full text available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191261514001623

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    Transportation Research Part B Methodological
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Transportation Research Part B Methodological
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Vujanović Davor B.; Momčilović Vladimir M.; Vasić Miloš B.;

    In this paper is researched how to achieve an effective fleet maintenance planning in transport companies, which contributes in increasing the fleet energy efficiency and in achieving the companies’ goal. Within the fleet maintenance planning, managers have to make the right decisions on the selection of vehicle service centers in the region where the maintenance work will be realized. The mentioned decision is affected by a number of different interdependent factors (criteria). Based on a survey, relevant factors (criteria) were defined. As defined factors are interdependent and differently influence the mentioned decision, an approach of decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL)-based analytic network process called DANP was applied. In this respect, authors propose a hybrid multi-criteria decision making model. The proposed model was applied in the companies to demonstrate how effective their managers are in the maintenance planning and how this effectiveness influences the fleet energy efficiency and fulfilment of companies’ goal. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 36027: Software development and national database for strategic management and development of transportation means and infrastructure in road, rail, air and inland waterways transport using the European transport network models]

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    Thermal Science
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    Thermal Science
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      Thermal Science
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      Thermal Science
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    Authors: Timilsina, Govinda R.; Dulal, Hari B.;

    This study reviews regulatory instruments designed to reduce environmental externalities from the transport sector. The study finds that the main regulatory instruments used in practice are fuel economy standards, vehicle emission standards, and fuel quality standards. Although industrialized countries have introduced all three standards with strong enforcement mechanisms, most developing countries have yet to introduce fuel economy standards. The emission standards introduced by many developing countries to control local air pollutants follow either the European Union or United States standards. Fuel quality standards, particularly for gasoline and diesel, have been introduced in many countries mandating 2 to 10 percent blending of biofuels, 10 to 50 times reduction of sulfur from 1996 levels, and banning lead contents. Although inspection and maintenance programs are in place in both industrialized and developing countries to enforce regulatory standards, these programs have faced several challenges in developing countries due to a lack of resources. The study also highlights several factors affecting the selection of regulatory instruments, such as countries' environmental priorities and institutional capacities.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    A 2013 scientific assessment of black carbon emissions and impacts found that black carbon is second to carbon dioxide in terms of its climate forcing. High concentrations of black carbon in the atmosphere can change precipitation patterns and reduce the amount of radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, which affects local agriculture. Acute and chronic exposures to particulate matter are associated with a range of diseases, including chronic bronchitis and asthma, as well as premature deaths from cardiopulmonary disease, lung cancer, and acute lower respiratory infections. The transportation sector accounted for approximately 19 percent of global black carbon emissions in the year 2000. This report aims to inform efforts to control black carbon emissions from diesel-based transportation in developing countries. It presents a summary of emissions control approaches from developed countries, while recognizing that developing countries face a number of on-the-ground implementation challenges. This study applies a new cost-benefit analysis methodology to four simulated diesel black carbon emissions control projects - diesel retrofit in Istanbul, green freight (plus retrofit) in Sao Paulo, fuel and vehicle standards in Jakarta, and compressed natural gas (CNG) buses in Cebu taking into account the additional climate benefits of black carbon reductions. While this report focuses on quantifying just the health and climate benefits of transport interventions, it also serves to highlight the challenges that can be faced when undertaking more comprehensive evaluation of transport projects. A cost-benefit framework for economic analysis of diesel black carbon emissions control transport projects is also presented that factors in both climate and health benefits. Historically, technical interventions to control diesel black carbon emissions in developed countries have successfully relied on fuel quality improvements and vehicle emissions standards.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: World Bank;

    According to a report by the World Bank published in April 2018, air pollution in Tehran incurs annual loss of billions of dollars and over 4,000 premature deaths from exposure to fine particles ambient concentrations. Particulate matter (PM), one of the primary pollutants from diesel exhaust, is associated with many different types of respiratory and cardiovascular effects, and premature mortality. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing city diesel bus fleet in Tehran with best available Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) available in the market. The report provides an updated assessment on the diesel retrofit solutions for an ageing diesel city bus fleet in Tehran based on publicly available information. The economic benefits of DPF installed in buses are evaluated with standard techniques of environmental economics, and technological assumptions about how much PM emissions can be avoided and control costs. The report highlights a number of national, regional and local examples of effective emission control program that exhibit best practices from around the world. Also, it presents important features and global experiences of successful retrofit program on heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs), including benefit-cost analysis from several case studies to help Tehran city leadership in taking informed economic and policy decisions. Finally, it recommends a set of critical actions to the government both at the national and local level for implementation of an effective emission control programs.

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    Open Knowledge Repository
    Report . 2019
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    Authors: Radosavljević Dušan M.; Manojlović Aleksandar V.; Medar Olivera M.; Bojović Nebojša J.;

    This paper presents the research on vehicle fleet energy efficiency impact upon overall vehicle effectiveness. Transport companies and companies with own vehicle fleets tend to enhance their resource effectiveness, and to increase their transport service quality with the objective of attaining a competitive position on the market. Since energy consumed for transport operations is an important transport process resource, a method for assessing transport process effectiveness has been developed with the objective of increasing vehicle fleet effectiveness and its energy efficiency, and the overall vehicle effectiveness human indicator has been defined accordingly. The developed method was then implemented in an actual vehicle fleet and variations of the overall vehicle effectiveness human indicator were researched, as well as specific energy consumptions for respective net transport volumes depending on the following indicators: vehicle payload capacity utilization rate and mileage utilization rate. It is shown that specific energy consumption influences overall vehicle effectiveness depending on both the payload capacity utilization rate and mileage utilization rate. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 36010: Development of the Model for Managing the Vehicle Technical Condition in Order to Increase its Energy Efficiency and Reduce Exhaust Emissions]

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Wanru Chen; Dezhi Zhang; Tom Van Woensel; Guangming Xu; +1 Authors

    Introducing clean energy into urban cold chain distribution to achieve a green transition is crucial for reducing transportation and logistics emissions and promoting sustainable urban development. This study focuses on the Cold Chain Green Multi-Depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Mixed Fleets (CC-GMD-VRPTW-MF) for city logistics distribution, utilizing both electric vehicles (EVs) and gasoline and diesel vehicles (GDVs). To accurately assess energy consumption, a realistic energy consumption model is employed. The CC-GMD-VRPTW-MF aims to minimize total costs (including fixed, energy consumption, damage, and environmental costs). To address the problem, we propose an improved Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) algorithm that introduces a new balanced mechanism for perturbation and a new memory-based mechanism for local search to enhance computational performance. Numerical studies on newly designed CC-GMD-VRPTW-MF instances are conducted to investigate the effect of incorporating EVs for joint delivery, considering different carbon prices, and adjusting time windows. Furthermore, we evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed improvement strategies in VNS and demonstrate the algorithm’s performance on benchmarks of related problems.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Expert Systems with ...arrow_drop_down
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    Expert Systems with Applications
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Expert Systems with ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Expert Systems with Applications
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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    Authors: Parisa Ahani; Amílcar Arantes; Rohollah Garmanjani; Sandra Melo;

    Publisher Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Since the 1990s, studies and pilot tests have been conducted to reduce traffic, accidents, and pollution due to urban freight transport (UFT). These ended up in several policies, regulations, and restrictions for UFT, such as low emission zones, delivery time windows, and vehicle size and weight restrictions. However, issues in UFT under regulatory measures still persist. This study introduces an optimization framework for deriving an optimal combination of various types of vehicles with different capacities for vehicle replacement with UFT. This framework allows an understanding of how an urban freight company with a limited budget efficiently satisfies its freight demand within an urban area in the presence of regulatory measures by urban administrators. The introduced formulation, which is mixed-integer linear programming, will assist the operator in choosing the best investment strategy for introducing new vehicles of certain types and sizes, for operation in different zones, into its fleet while gaining economic benefits and having a positive impact on the liveability of the urban area. Furthermore, an elasticity analysis is performed to consider the effects of specific uncertain parameters on the total cost. The numerical results show that the share of electric vehicles in the fleet increases, and they are more competitive than diesel vehicles. publishersversion published

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    Other literature type . Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    https://doi.org/10.20944/prepr...
    Preprint . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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